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James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangrove Forests Dr. James A. Danoff-Burg Columbia University.

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Presentation on theme: "James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangrove Forests Dr. James A. Danoff-Burg Columbia University."— Presentation transcript:

1 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangrove Forests Dr. James A. Danoff-Burg Columbia University

2 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangrove Forests Found in coastal areas all over the tropics Primarily in brackish water –salty and fresh mix Cover approximately 22 million hectares in tropical and subtropical coasts

3 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Ecosystem Functions & Threats Serve as an important buffer between sea and land –Lessen impact of intense storms –Reduce erosion and increase sedimentation –Important coastal pioneer species –Act as basis for a complex, biologically diverse, and productive ecosystem Increasingly threatened –Human development is most intense along coasts

4 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangroves Not a natural taxonomic group –Convergence among several groups Possibly 16 convergent events –Based on physiological attributes –54 species total world-wide 16 Families –Principally: Avicenniaceae & Rhizophoraceae –These two families include 25 spp. 20 Genera

5 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangrove Location Found in tropical areas only –Within the 20ºC isocline –More southern on East side of continents Due to southward moving warm Equatorial currents there

6 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Terminology Mangal –Community of organisms in the mangrove habitat Mangrove –Trees that flourish in the mangal Pneumatophore –Vertical root structures for air exchange –Lenticels - tiny pores for air exchange –Aerenchyma – tissue for air storage

7 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Characteristics of Mangal Inundation with tides Increasing salinity towards ocean Sandy clay soil –Nutrient poor Nitrogen & Phosphorus are limiting –Limiting mangrove growth only Organic nutrients deposited via siltation –Fresh water streams & down-shore currents –Most all are of terrestrial origin In sum: Mangal is a harsh place to live

8 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangrove Adaptations Salt tolerance –Sequester in tissue (bark, stem, root) –Secrete through leaves –Exclusion by negative hydrostatic pressure Frequent inundation –Aerenchyma tissue & aerial roots Tolerant of soils low in oxygen –Hypoxic or anoxic

9 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangrove Consequences of Adaptations Greater root mass –Relative to rest of plant & relative to non- mangrove species –For water exchange & air exchange Lower growth rates –Consequence of salt & air exchange Tradeoff between salt tolerance & frequent inundation –Can adapt for one or other –Not both

10 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangrove Pollination Pollination method varies by species –Wind (Rhizophora) –bat or hawk moth (Sonneratia) –birds and butterflies (Bruguiera) –bees (Acanthus, Aegiceras, Avicennia, Excoecaria, Xylocarpus) –fruit flies (Nypa) –other small insects (Ceriops, Kandelia)

11 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangrove Reproduction Vivipary normal –Reproduction and growth while still attached to plant Flowering Fertilization Propagule growth Hypocotyl Young propagule a.k.a. Hypocotyl Mature propagule

12 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangrove Dispersal Maturity -> Drop off maternal plant Float horizontally initially –Dispersal to novel environments ideally Float vertically with appropriate environmental conditions Rooting and growth

13 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangal Habitat Types (from inland to oceanfront) Riverine –Often found in river deltas –Constant influx of freshwater –Great changes in salinity levels Basin Mangroves –Inland, behind coastal mangroves –Little change in tides, no wave action –Often higher salinity than others (evaporation) Tide-Dominated –Coastal front habitats –Frequent sedimentation –Unstable morphology due to coastal erosion

14 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Intraspecific Differences in Environmental Tolerances Salinity variations and adaptations for excreting salt –Varies within and between species –Through growth stages Tidal Inundation and adaptations for gas exchange –Pneumatophores and other aerial root extensions Low soil stability, Shore morphology, and adaptations for rooting –Prop Roots Sedimentation rates and types

15 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangrove Species Zonation Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Ceriops australis Avicennia marina Rhizophora stylosa SalinityInundation Decreasing Soil Stability Sedimentation Rate All increase toward shore

16 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Most Common Species Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) Black Mangrove (Avicennia germinans) White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) –All are found throughout tropics

17 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Bark Identification

18 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Tree Characters

19 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Pneumatophores

20 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Epiphytes

21 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, For more information Go to gec.htm and read the ecology link gec.htm A clearinghouse on information on mangrove ecology is available at glinks.htm glinks.htm

22 James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University, Mangroves of Australia The mangrove plants of Queensland (from –Listed below are the true mangrove species that grow in Queensland. Hybrid plants are indicated by the use of an x in the scientific name (e.g. Lumnitzera x rosea). AcanthaceaeAcanthus ebracteatus Acanthus ilicifolius ArecaceaeNypa fruticans AvicenniaceaeAvicennia marina BignoniaceaeDolichandrone spathacea BombaceaeCamptostemum schultzii CaesalpiniaceaeCynometra iripa CombretaceaeLumnitzera racemosa, Lumnitzera x rosea, Lumnitzera littorea EbenaceaeDiospyros ferrea EuphorbiaceaeExcoecaria agallocha LythraceaePemphis acidula MeliaceaeXylocarpus granatum MyrsinaceaeXylocarpus mekongensis, Aegiceras corniculatum MyrtaceaeOsbornia octodonta PlumbaginaceaeAegialitis annulata PteridaceaeAcrostichum speciosum RhizophoraceaeBruguiera gymnorrhiza,Bruguiera sexangula, Bruguiera exaristata, Bruguiera parviflora, Bruguiera cylindrica, Ceriops australis, Ceriops decandra, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora x lamarckii, Rhizophora stylosa, Rhizophora mucronata RubiaceaeScyphiphora hydrophyllacea SonneratiaceaeSonneratia alba, Sonneratia x gulngai, Sonneratia caseolaris, Sonneratia lanceolata SterculaceaeHeritiera littoralis


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