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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint TextEdit Art Slides for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint TextEdit Art Slides for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint TextEdit Art Slides for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Chapter 45 Hormones and the Endocrine System

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 45.1 An anise swallowtail butterfly emerging from its chrysalis

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 45.2 Basic patterns of simple hormonal control pathways PathwayExample Stimulus Low blood glucose Receptor protein Pancreas secretes glucagon ( ) Endocrine cell Blood vessel Liver Target effectors Response Pathway Example Stimulus Suckling Sensory neuron Hypothalamus/ posterior pituitary Neurosecretory cell Blood vessel Posterior pituitary secretes oxytocin ( ) Target effectors Smooth muscle in breast Response Milk release Pathway Example Stimulus Hypothalamic neurohormone released in response to neural and hormonal signals Sensory neuron Hypothalamus secretes prolactin- releasing hormone ( ) Neurosecretory cell Blood vessel Anterior pituitary secretes prolactin ( ) Endocrine cell Blood vessel Target effectors Response Mammary glands Milk production (c) Simple neuroendocrine pathway (b) Simple neurohormone pathway (a) Simple endocrine pathway Hypothalamus Glycogen breakdown, glucose release into blood

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 45.3 Mechanisms of hormonal signaling: a review SECRETORY CELL Hormone molecule VIA BLOOD Signal receptor TARGET CELL Signal transduction pathway Cytoplasmic response Nuclear response NUCLEUS DNA OR SECRETORY CELL Hormone molecule VIA BLOOD TARGET CELL Signal receptor Signal transduction and response DNA mRNA NUCLEUS Synthesis of specific proteins (a) Receptor in plasma membrane (b) Receptor in cell nucleus

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 45.4 One chemical signal, different effects Different receptors different cell responses Epinephrine  receptor Epinephrine  receptor Epinephrine  receptor Vessel constricts Vessel dilates Glycogen breaks down and glucose is released from cell Intestinal blood vessel (a) Skeletal muscle blood vessel (b) Liver cell (c) Different intracellular proteins different cell responses Glycogen deposits

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 45.5 Activated platelets aggregating, a process regulated in part by prostaglandins

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 45.1 Major Human Endocrine Glands and Some of Their Hormones

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 45.1

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 45.6 Human endocrine glands surveyed in this chapter Hypothalamus Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Adrenal glands Pancreas Ovary (female) Testis (male)

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Unnumbered figure page 950

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 45.7 Production and release of posterior pituitary hormones Hypothalamus Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus Axon Anterior pituitary Posterior pituitary HORMONE ADH Oxytocin TARGET Kidney tubules Mammary glands, uterine muscles

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 45.8 Production and release of anterior pituitary hormones Tropic Effects Only FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone LH, luteinizing hormone TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone Nontropic Effects Only Prolactin MSH, melanocyte-stimulating hormone Endorphin Nontropic and Tropic Effects Growth hormone Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus Portal vessels Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary Hypothalamic releasing hormones (red dots) HORMONE FSH and LHTSH ACTHProlactin MSH Endorphin Growth hormone TARGET Testes or ovaries Thyroid Adrenal cortex Mammary glands Melanocytes Pain receptors in the brain Liver Bones Pituitary hormones (blue dots)

13 Group Work Ever play pin the tail on the donkey? Ever play pin the hormone on the gland? Well we are going to make this game and send it to Hasbro. You need to: – Draw a hermaphrodite on large paper – Draw and cut out hormone pieces The pieces should relate to their function

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Unnumbered figure page 953

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary TSH Thyroid T3T3 T4T4 + Figure 45.9 Feedback regulation of T 3 and T 4 secretion from the thyroid gland TRH

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Graves’ disease, the most common form of hyperthyroidism in humans

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Unnumbered figure page 954

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Calcitonin Thyroid gland releases calcitonin. Stimulates Ca 2+ deposition in bones Reduces Ca 2+ uptake in kidneys STIMULUS: Rising blood Ca 2+ level Blood Ca 2+ level declines to set point Homeostasis: Blood Ca 2+ level (about 10 mg/100 mL) Blood Ca 2+ level rises to set point STIMULUS: Falling blood Ca 2+ level Stimulates Ca 2+ release from bones Parathyroid gland Increases Ca 2+ uptake in intestines Active vitamin D Stimulates Ca 2+ uptake in kidneys PTH Figure Hormonal control of calcium homeostasis in mammals

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Unnumbered figure page 955

20 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Maintenance of glucose homeostasis by insulin and glucagon Beta cells of pancreas are stimulated to release insulin into the blood. Insulin Liver takes up glucose and stores it as glycogen. Body cells take up more glucose. Blood glucose level declines to set point; stimulus for insulin release diminishes. STIMULUS: Rising blood glucose level (for instance, after eating a carbohydrate- rich meal) Homeostasis: Blood glucose level (about 90 mg/100 mL) Blood glucose level rises to set point; stimulus for glucagon release diminishes. STIMULUS: Dropping blood glucose level (for instance, after skipping a meal) Alpha cells of pancreas are stimulated to release glucagon into the blood. Liver breaks down glycogen and releases glucose into blood. Glucagon

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Unnumbered figure page 956

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal cord (cross section) Nerve signals Nerve cell Releasing hormone Stress Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Blood vessel ACTH Adrenal gland Kidney Adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. Adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine: 1. Glycogen broken down to glucose; increased blood glucose 2. Increased blood pressure 3. Increased breathing rate 4. Increased metabolic rate 5. Change in blood flow patterns, leading to increased alertness and decreased digestive and kidney activity Effects of mineralocorticoids: Retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys Increased blood volume and blood pressure Effects of glucocorticoids: Proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose Immune system may be suppressed (b) Long-term stress response (a) Short-term stress response Nerve cell Figure Stress and the adrenal gland

23 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Unnumbered figure page 958

24 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Male breast enlargement due to anabolic steroids

25 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Unnumbered figure page 959

26 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Hormonal regulation of insect development (layer 1) Brain Neurosecretory cells Corpus cardiacum Corpus allatum EARLY LARVA LATER LARVA PUPA ADULT Prothoracic gland Ecdysone Brain hormone (BH)

27 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Hormonal regulation of insect development (layer 2) Brain Neurosecretory cells Corpus cardiacum Corpus allatum EARLY LARVA LATER LARVA PUPA ADULT Prothoracic gland Ecdysone Brain hormone (BH)

28 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Hormonal regulation of insect development (layer 3) Brain Neurosecretory cells Corpus cardiacum Corpus allatum EARLY LARVA LATER LARVA PUPA ADULT Prothoracic gland Ecdysone Brain hormone (BH) Juvenile hormone (JH) Low JH


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