4 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview Polluted StreamsPoint Source PollutionIndustrial wastes empty directly into a streamNon-point Source PollutionGarbage in streams can create poor water quality conditions from leachates
6 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview Why Monitor ?Baseline data collectionAnalyze data for trends and Identify potential problemsDetermine further testing needs ORTake Action to correct problemsAddress concerns on a local level where agencies may not have data
7 Water Testing Resources Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewWater Testing ResourcesOregon’s DEQ offers Water Quality training to volunteer groupsMarion SWCD/ some Watershed CouncilsOSU ExtensionAdopt-A-Stream at local High Schools
8 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview Water Quality TestingCollecting Field SamplesGather data for presentations, project monitoring, local stream studies
9 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview Water TestsBasic -Physical Chemistry:pHTemperatureDissolved oxygenElectrical conductivity (hardness)TurbidityNutrients (nitrates/phosphates)Bacteria (E. coli or fecal coliform tests)More advanced tests:Toxins/PesticidesHeavy metalsBiological testing:Macroinvertebratesampling
10 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview pHalkalinity and acidity (H20 also has free H+ and OH- ions that determine pH)Natural soil characteristics -charged particles like Mg++, Ca++, Na+ can alter pHRainwater is acidic at 5.6Fertilizers, plant decomposition (tannic acid) lowers pHMost fish and aquatic life survives in 5-9 pH range
11 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview TemperatureMany Oregon streams exceed state standardsSalmon & trout prefer clear cool streams, begin to die at 70 0 FMost aquatic life is cold-blooded and adapted to conditions 41 & 77 0 FFactors that influence stream temperature:Shade: Streamside vegetation keeps streams cooler longer (especially small streams)Turbidity: excess causes increased temperature by suspended particles absorbing more solar radiationFlow: slow-moving water heats up more quicklyVolume: Shallow streams heat up more quicklySnow Pack: melting ice / snow in headwaters keeps streams colder.Air Temp: surrounding air temperatures influence stream temperatures.
12 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview oCoF10021290194801767015860140501224098.6308620681032-1014-20water boils20-25 C / 68-77o F(warm water fish)bass, bluegill, bullheads,carp, crappie,pikeminnow, suckersdragonflies, somecaddisflies, true flies13-20 C / 55-68o FSome salmon/trout, lamprey, sturgeon, shad, dace,stickleback, walleye,Sculpins, mayflies, caddisflieshuman bodylethal for salmonwater freezes5-13 C / o F(cold water fish)Salmon, trout, sculpins,mayflies, caddisflies,stoneflies
13 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview Collecting Continuous Temperature dataSummer deployment of units in streamscollect continuous summer temperaturedatadownload and create graphs of Maximum Temps
15 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview Dissolved OxygenWarmer water holds less DOAlgae give off oxygen when they respire during the day and use up oxygen when they decomposeBiological Oxygen Demand or BOD: total O2 use by plants & animalsDO concentrations often lowest late at nightSalmon and trout need levels above 4 mg/L, prefer to spawn in areas above 8 mg/L
16 Nutrients (nitrates/phosphates) Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewNutrients (nitrates/phosphates)Water needs plant nutrients in small quantitiesToo much can cause unstable “blooms” of algae that, when decomposing, consume all the available dissolved oxygenSources: artificial fertilizers, decomposing plant material, open manure piles, detergents, wildlife and pet waste
18 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview TurbiditySuspended particles in water columnInstrument measures amount of light that can pass through the water column in NTUs Nepholometric Turbidity UnitsSuspended sediment often carries soil-attached pesticides, fertilizers or other polluted runoffSediment buries aquatic eggs, suffocates gills, warms waterAccelerated erosion costs money in loss of topsoil, highways and sometimes homes, resulting in dredging costs and lifespan of dams5 NTU’s drinking water limit, 25 NTU’s fish begin to be impaired, NTU’s often the level found during floods or when accelerated erosion is occurring, such as on disturbed, unprotected soil.
19 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview ErosionErosion causes sedimentation and turbidity
21 Bacteria (E. coli or fecal coliform) Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewBacteria (E. coli or fecal coliform)Indicator of human or animal wasteIncreases in E. coli also increase the chances for associated pathogenic bacteria which cause diseaseRural Sources: failing septic systems, wildlife, runoff from cattle or horses near streams, runoff from confined animal feed lots (horse, pig, dairy, etc)Urban Sources: Pet waste,sewage overflows
22 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview Flow TestingQuantify seasonal flow in Cubic Feet / second (CFS) by taking incremental flow measurements across the stream channelA quick method to find a rough discharge in CFS is to record the feet/second a floating object travels and multiply by the stream cross sectional area.Stream gage stations allow us to quantify water volume moving through the site all through the year
23 Volunteer WQ Monitoring Overview Biological SamplingUsing macroinvertebrate species pollution tolerance to measure stream healthRiffle sampling with D-frame kicknet
26 Pollution-Sensitive Macroinvertebrates Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewPollution-Sensitive MacroinvertebratesMayfly larvaImportant fish foodThey eat plants and algaeSleek bodyAbdominal gillsMost have 3 tailsMost have a single claw at the end of each leg
27 Pollution-Sensitive Macroinvertebrates Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewPollution-Sensitive MacroinvertebratesStonefly larvaOften found on rocksPredators and shreddersSensitive to human disturbanceFlat in appearanceHave two tails with many segmentsHave two claws at the end of each legAdult Stoneflies live only for a week to a month
28 Pollution-Sensitive Macroinvertebrates Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewPollution-Sensitive MacroinvertebratesWater penny larvaArmored segmentsOval bodyLive on rocks in fast waterEat algae off rocksAs an adult beetle, the water penny looks very different from the larva stage.
29 Somewhat Tolerant Macroinvertebrates Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewSomewhat Tolerant MacroinvertebratesCranefly larvaWorm-like appearancePredators that may eat mosquito larvaeFound in most aquatic habitatsRelated to fliesSoft bodyGood food for most aquatic organismsNo jointed legsThe adult is often mistaken for mosquitoes.
30 Somewhat Tolerant Macroinvertebrates Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewSomewhat Tolerant MacroinvertebratesDragonfly and damselfly larvaNot showy like the adultsPrey on other insectsGenerally found in still waterHave jet propulsionDragonflies have thick abdomen and damselflies have thinner abdomen
31 Somewhat Tolerant Macroinvertebrates Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewSomewhat Tolerant MacroinvertebratesScudsShrimp-like animals with flat bodiesMainly collect and gather dead foodFound almost anywhereGood food source for fishFound in urban streamsScuds are crustaceans not insects.
32 Somewhat Tolerant Macroinvertebrates Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewSomewhat Tolerant MacroinvertebratesCrayfish / CrawdadHave 8 legs and two small to very large clawsHave muscular and obvious tailPredatorsCan be found in urban streams
33 Pollution Tolerant Macroinvertebrates Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewPollution Tolerant MacroinvertebratesMosquito larvaDo not need good water quality to reproduceFound in creeks and other places of standing water.Some eggs can dry out and still hatch when flooded.Feed on organic matterWriggleOnly female mosquitoes bite.
34 Pollution Tolerant Macroinvertebrates Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewPollution Tolerant MacroinvertebratesBlack fly larvaVery common in streamsBowling pin shapedWell-developed headUsually fans on top of headAdults are biting insectsAdult females of most black fly species require a blood meal to produce eggs.
36 Pollution Tolerant Macroinvertebrates Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewPollution Tolerant MacroinvertebratesLeechesVariety of shapes and sizesHighly segmented, usually flattened bodies34 body segmentsSuckers evident on one or both endsDark eye spotsHave long been used for medical purposes
37 Marion Soil & Water Conservation District Volunteer WQ Monitoring OverviewMarion Soil & Water Conservation DistrictFor more information:(Salem)