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Review the Animal Kingdom 4 Major Characteristics? Multicellular Eukaryotic Heterotrophs Cells lack cell walls.

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Presentation on theme: "Review the Animal Kingdom 4 Major Characteristics? Multicellular Eukaryotic Heterotrophs Cells lack cell walls."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review the Animal Kingdom 4 Major Characteristics? Multicellular Eukaryotic Heterotrophs Cells lack cell walls

2 7 Essential Functions? Feeding Respiration Circulation Excretion Response Movement Reproduction

3 Trends in Animal Evolution Cell specialization and levels of organization? Early development? Body symmetry? Cephalization? Coelom?

4 Brain Encased Skull jaws Bony Skeleton Lungs Amniotic Egg Hard Shells Fur & Milk Glands

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6 Water flow Collar Cell Spicule Pore cell Pore Epidermal cell Archaeocyte Osculum Central cavity Pores The Anatomy of a Sponge

7 Examples: hydra, coral, sea anemone Examples: jellyfish, portuguese man of war Cnidarians have two body forms Polyp - stationary, vase-shaped Medusa - swimming, cup-shaped

8 Ecology of Sponges 1.Ideal habitats for marine animals such as snails, sea stars, sea cucumbers, and shrimp 2.Mutually beneficial relationships with bacteria, algae and plant-like protists

9 Ecology of Cnidarians A. Source of new drugs/chemicals  sunscreen 855 B. Provide habitats for marine organisms C. Source of food for other organisms (like sea turtles) D. Symbiotic relationships with other organisms

10 3 Groups of Worms? Flatworms Roundworms Segmented Worms What do all 3 groups have in common? –Bilateral symmetry, cephalization, sexual reproduction, true organs,

11 Flatworm adaptation? Simplest animals to have bilateral symmetry and cephalization.

12 Roundworm Adaptation? First animals to have a one way digestive system with mouth and anus First animals to have a fluid filled body cavity called a pseudocoelom- “false body cavity”

13 Segmented Worm Adaptation? First animals to have true circulatory system and coelom – body cavity.

14 Examples of Mollusks?

15 Major Advancement? Well developed nervous system

16 4 parts to body? 1. Foot- 2. Mantle (covering) – 3. Shell – 4. Visceral mass – muscular and modified in each group: used for crawling, burrowing, or may form tentacles for capturing prey thin layer that covers most of the body and secretes the shell made of calcium carbonate – for protection area where internal organs are located.

17 Classification of Mollusks? Classified into three common groups based on shell presence and type and foot modification 1. Gastropods 2. Bivalves 3. Cephalopods

18 Echinoderms’ Adaptations Development similar to vertebrates Water Vascular System

19 Types of Echinoderms Sea Stars Brittle Stars Sea Urchins Sand Dollars Sea Cucumbers

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22 Arthropods “jointed foot” Major Groups –Arachnids - Spiders and their relatives –Crustaceans- lobster, shrimp and crayfish –Centipedes –Millipedes –Insects and their relatives – grasshopper, cricket, roaches, beetles

23 Arthropods Characteristics –Largest group of animals –Have jointed appendages which include legs, antennae, claws and pincers –Have bilateral symmetry, segmented bodies, exoskeletons, a body cavity, a digestive system with two openings and a nervous system –Most have separate sexes and reproduce sexually

24 Arthropods Body Segments –Bodies of these animals are divided into specialized segments Exoskeleton –A hard outer covering that supports and protects the internal body and provides places for muscle to attach. –Doesn’t grow as the animals does, it is shed and replaced during a process called molting

25 Exoskeleton Advantages Disadvantages 1. protection 1. Must molt as animal grows 2. prevents desiccation 2. limits size of animal

26 Arachnids Have two body regions –Cephalothorax and an abdomen Four pairs of legs and no antennae Many are adapted to kill prey with poison glands, stingers, or fangs Some are parasites

27 Black Widow

28 Arachnids Scorpions –Have sharp, poison filled stinger at the end of abdomen. –Have a well-developed appendages which they can grab their prey. Spiders –Can’t chew their food, release enzymes into prey to digest it—then suck the predigest liquid into its mouth. –Have book lungs where O 2 and CO 2 are exchanged.

29 Arachnids Mites & Ticks –Most are parasites –Ticks have specialized mouthparts to remove blood from the host. –Ticks often carry disease such as Lyme disease.

30 Centipedes & Millipedes Have long bodies and many segments, exoskeleton, jointed legs, antennae and simple eyes. Found in damp environments Reproduce sexually Centipedes are predators Millipedes feed on decaying plant matter.

31 Centipede Millipede

32 Crustaceans

33 Have one or two pair of antennae and mandibles, which are used for crushing food. Most live in water, but some live in moist environments on land—such as pill bug. Have five pair of legs, first pair of legs are claws for catching and holding food.

34 Crustaceans Swimmerets are appendages on the abdomen which help in movement and are used in reproduction; also force water over the gills used in O 2 and CO 2 exchange

35 Chelipeds – capture prey & defense

36 Chelipeds –food and defense Antennae – touch & taste

37 Chelipeds –food and defense Antennae – touch & taste Antennule - balance

38 Chelipeds –food and defense Antennae – touch & taste Antennule - balance Rostrum - protection

39 Chelipeds –food and defense Antennae – touch & taste Antennule - balance Rostrum - protection Cervical groove – separation of head & thorax

40 Chelipeds –food and defense Antennae – touch & taste Antennule - balance Rostrum - protection Cervical groove – separation of head & thorax Swimmerets- swimming

41 Chelipeds –food and defense Antennae – touch & taste Antennule - balance Rostrum - protection Cervical groove – separation of head & thorax Swimmerets- swimming Uropod- steering-

42 Chelipeds –food and defense Antennae – touch & taste Antennule - balance Rostrum - protection Cervical groove – separation of head & thorax Swimmerets- swimming Uropod- steering- X-X- telson -

43 Chelipeds –food and defense Antennae – touch & taste Antennule - balance Rostrum - protection Cervical groove – separation of head & thorax Swimmerets- swimming Uropod- steering- X-X- telson- Carapace – outer covering of body

44 Chelipeds –food and defense Antennae – touch & taste Antennule - balance Rostrum - protection Cervical groove – separation of head & thorax Swimmerets- swimming Uropod- steering- X-X- telson - Carapace – outer covering of body Walking Legs

45 Green gland- removes liquid waste

46 Maxilliped – taste & hold food

47 Green gland- removes liquid waste Maxilliped – taste & hold food Gill Chamber

48 Green gland- removes liquid waste Maxilliped – taste & hold food Gill Chamber swimmerets

49 Green gland- removes liquid waste Maxilliped – taste & hold food Gill Chamber swimmerets anus

50 Green gland- removes liquid waste Maxilliped – taste & hold food Gill Chamber swimmerets anus Telson- backward movement

51 Mandible – grind food Maxilliped – taste & hold food Gill Chamber swimmerets anus Telson- backward movement

52 Mandible – grind food Maxilliped – taste & hold food Gill Chamber swimmerets anus Telson- backward movement uropod

53 Mandible – grind food Maxilliped – taste & hold food Gill Chamber swimmerets anus Telson- backward movement uropod Walking legs

54 Mandible – grind food Maxilliped – taste & hold food Gill Chamber swimmerets anus Telson- backward movement uropod Walking legs cheliped

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56 Insects Have three body regions 1.Head –Has a pair of antennae, eyes and a mouth 2.Thorax –Three pairs of legs and one or two pairs of wings if present are attached here 3.Abdomen –Where reproductive structures are found

57 Insects Bilateral Symmetry, cephalization, and well developed nervous systems Have an open circulatory system that carries digestive food to cells and removes wastes Insect blood doesn’t carry O 2 instead air enters and exits through openings called spiracles found on the abdomen and thorax Are the only invertebrate animals that can fly Have some of the most specialized adaptations of all arthropods

58 Insects success Insects are extremely successful based these reasons –Tough flexible, waterproof exoskeleton –Ability to fly –Rapid reproduction cycles –Small sizes –Use a variety of food sources Insects have other adaptations that allow them to be successful

59 Insects & Food Feed on a number of things have different mouth parts to obtain food Grasshoppers and ants have large mandibles for chewing Butterflies and honey bees have siphons for lapping up nectar Aphids and mosquitoes have mouth parts that are adapted for piercing into plants or other organisms

60 Value of Arthropods A source of food Agriculture would be impossible without bees and other insects to pollinate crops Useful chemicals are obtain from some arthropods Important part of ecological community

61 Controlling Insects Not all arthropods are of value some are pests that carry disease or can damage crops

62 Controlling Insects Common ways to control insects –Insecticides, but these also kill non-harmful insects –Biological controls Types of bacteria, fungi, and viruses can be used to control insects Natural predators being released to kill the harmful insect Some how interfere with reproduction of the particular insect

63 Insect Metamorphosis & Crayfish Diagram

64 Eggs laid by adult

65 Young Larva

66 Eggs laid by adult Young Larva Larva – feeds on leaves

67 Eggs laid by adult Young Larva Larva – feeds on leaves Mature Larva attaches to twig

68 Eggs laid by adult Young Larva Larva – feeds on leaves Mature Larva attaches to twig Larva begins to pupate (change) Pupa inside chrysalis

69 Eggs laid by adult Young Larva Larva – feeds on leaves Mature Larva attaches to twig Larva begins to pupate (change) Pupa inside chrysalis Adult emerges from chrysalis

70 Eggs laid by adult Young Larva Larva – feeds on leaves Mature Larva attaches to twig Larva begins to pupate (change) Pupa inside chrysalis Adult emerges from chrysalis Adult – eats nectar & pollen and can fly

71 Eggs laid by adult Young Larva Larva – feeds on leaves Mature Larva attaches to twig Larva begins to pupate (change) Pupa inside chrysalis Adult emerges from chrysalis Adult – eats nectar & pollen and can fly What are the 4 stages of Complete Metamorphosis

72 Eggs laid by adult Young Larva Larva – feeds on leaves Mature Larva attaches to twig Larva begins to pupate (change) Pupa inside chrysalis Adult emerges from chrysalis Adult – eats nectar & pollen and can fly Complete Metamorphosis Egg Larva Pupa Adult

73 Eggs laid by adult Young Larva Larva – feeds on leaves Mature Larva attaches to twig Larva begins to pupate (change) Pupa inside chrysalis Adult emerges from chrysalis Adult – eats nectar & pollen and can fly Complete Metamorphosis Egg Larva Pupa Adult Advantages: 1.Adults & larvae do not compete for same food source

74 Adult lays eggs

75 Eggs hatch into nymphs that eat vegetation

76 Adult lays eggs Eggs hatch into nymphs that eat vegetation Nymphs do not have wings & must molt as they grow

77 Adult lays eggs Eggs hatch into nymphs that eat vegetation Nymphs do not have wings & must molt as they grow molt

78 Adult lays eggs Eggs hatch into nymphs that eat vegetation Nymphs do not have wings & must molt as they grow molt

79 Adult lays eggs Eggs hatch into nymphs that eat vegetation Nymphs do not have wings & must molt as they grow molt

80 Adult lays eggs Eggs hatch into nymphs that eat vegetation Nymphs do not have wings & must molt as they grow molt Adult- able to reproduce

81 Adult lays eggs Eggs hatch into nymphs that eat vegetation Nymphs do not have wings & must molt as they grow molt Adult- able to reproduce What are the three stages of incomplete metamorphosis?

82 Adult lays eggs Eggs hatch into nymphs that eat vegetation Nymphs do not have wings & must molt as they grow molt Adult- able to reproduce Incomplete Metamorphosis Egg Nymph Adult

83 Adult lays eggs Eggs hatch into nymphs that eat vegetation Nymphs do not have wings & must molt as they grow molt Adult- able to reproduce Incomplete Metamorphosis Egg Nymph Adult Advantage: 1. Nymphs only job is to eat; adults only reproduce – increases reproductive success


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