2International Economic Integration International economic integration refers to the extent and strength of real-sector and financial-sector linkages among national economies.Real Sector: The sector of the economy engaged in the production and sale of goods and services.Financial Sector: The sector of the economy where individuals trade in financial assets.Though economists tend to measure activity in these two sectors separately, an important point of this chapter is to show that they are linked.
3Importance of the Global Market for Goods and Services Over the last 35 years, the volume of world trade in goods and services has grown by almost 6 percent annually.The cumulative effect of this growth is more than a five-fold increase in world trade.As measured by the share of overall real-sector activity, world trade in goods and services has become more important to advanced and developing economies alike.
4Growth of World Exports During the past thirty years, world trade in goods and services has exhibited positive growth rates for all but two years.SOURCE: International Monetary Fund, Economic Outlook, and authors’ estimates.
5Selected Nation’s Trade The global market for goods and services has become more important for individual nations. The percentage shown reflects each nation’s trade as a share of its overall economic activity.SOURCE: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, various issues, and authors’ estimates.
6and Foreign Exchange Transactions Growth of Tradeand Foreign Exchange Transactions
7Cross-Border Transaction in Bonds and Equities In Germany, the United States, and the United Kingdom, international transactions in bonds and equities have grown by more than 3,000 percent, 1000 percent, and 700 percent respectively.SOURCE: Bank for International Settlements, International Financial Statistics, and authors’ estimates.
9The Top Global Companies Ranked by Foreign Assets CompanyHome CountryIndustry1VodaphoneUnited KingdomTelecommunication2General ElectricUnited StatesElectrical3ExxonMobilePetroleum4Vivendi UniversalFranceDiversified5General MotorsMotor Vehicles6Royal Dutch/ShellUnited Kingdom / Netherlands7BP8Toyota MotorJapan9TelefónicaSpainTelecommunications10FiatItaly
10TransnationalityAre the activities of the world’s largest firms really spread out globally?A transnationality index measures this.It is calculated by averaging the ratios ofForeign assets to total assetsForeign sales to total salesForeign employees to total empolyees.
11An ExampleGeneral Electric, a U.S. TNC, ranks second on the list of the world’s largest non-financial TCS based on foreign assets.Foreign assets are 159,188, total assets 437,006, foreign sales 49,528, total sales 129,853, foreign employment 145,000 and total employment 313,000.Its TNI is only 40.3 and it does not appear on the list of the top ten TNCs by TNI.
13The Top Global Companies Based on Transnationality RankingCompanyHome CountryIndustry1Rio TintoU.K. / AustraliaMining2ThomsonCanadaMedia3ABBSwitzerlandMachinery and Equipment4NestléFood and Beverages5British American TobaccoUnited KingdomTobacco6ElectroluxSwedenElectronic Equipment7InterbrewBelgiumFood and Beverage8Anglo American9AstrazenecaPharmaceuticals10Phillips ElectronicsNetherlands
14Balance of Payments Accounting To understand how economists measure international transactions in the real and financial sectors of an economy, and how these sectors are linked, we turn to the balance of payments (BOP) accounting system.A system of accounts which is a subset of the National Income and Production Accounts.A double-entry system.Debit Entries: Transactions that generate a payment outflow (e.g., import).Credit Entries: Transactions that generate a payment inflow (e.g., export).
15Balance of PaymentsThe current account is the broadest measure of a nation’s real sector trade.Includes:GoodsServicesIncome Receipts and PaymentsUnilateral Transfers
16Current Account Goods: Exports and imports of tangible items. Services: Exports and imports of services, for example:Typical business services such as banking and financial services, insurance, and consulting.Tourism
17Current Account Income Receipts: Includes items such as Investment income on US-owned assets abroad.Receipts of income on US direct investment abroad.Government income receiptsIncome Payments: Includes items such asInvestment income on foreign-owned assets in the United States.Payments of income on foreign direct investment in the United StatesUS Government income payments
18Current Account Unilateral Transfers: Includes items such as: Government grants abroadPrivate remittancesPrivate grants abroadThe current account balance is the sum of the debit and credit entries in the accounts just described.A current account deficit occurs when the sum of the debit entries exceeds the sum of the credit entries. A current account surplus occurs when the sum of the credit entries exceeds the sum of the debit entries.
20Balance of Payments The Financial Sector The Capital and Financial Account tabulates the flows of financial assets between domestic residents and foreign residents and governments.The private capital account tabulates flows among private domestic residents and foreign private residents.
21The Capital Account The Capital and financial Account: Records international transactions in the financial sector.Includes portfolio and foreign direct investment.Includes changes in banks’ and brokers’ cash deposits that arise from international transactions.The main accounts are:US-Owned Assets Abroad: Increase or decrease in US ownership of foreign financial assets.Foreign-Owned Assets in the US: Increase or decrease in foreign ownership of domestic assets.Reserve Assets: Primarily the assets of central banks.
22Portfolio and Foreign Direct Investment Portfolio Investment: Individual or business purchase of stocks, bond, or other financial assets or deposits. (An income strategy)Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Purchase of financial assets that results in a 10 percent or greater ownership share. (A financial control strategy)
24The Balance of Payments The Statistical Discrepancy The sum of the debit and credit entries in all of the BOP should total zero.Of course there are errors and omissions resulting in a non-zero balance.An offsetting entry to this non-zero balance is made in the statistical discrepancy account.In this way, the total of the debit and credit entries equals zero.
25BOP Examples U.S. company imports an automobile valued at $50,000 GoodsServicesIncomePayments and ReceiptsUTCapitalDebits(imports)-50,000Credits(exports)50,000
26Income Payments and Receipts BOP Examples U.S. government sends $1 million in humanitarian supplies to AfghanistanGoodsServicesIncome Payments and ReceiptsUTCapitalDebits(imports)-1 millionCredits(exports)1 million
27Income Payments and Receipts BOP Examples U.S. resident buys a UK Tbill equivalent in value to $1,000GoodsServicesIncome Payments and ReceiptsUTCapitalDebits(imports)-1,000Credits(exports)1,000
28Income Payments and Receipts BOP Examples U.S. resident receives $100 in interest on a foreign asset they ownGoodsServicesIncome Payments and ReceiptsUTCapitalDebits(imports)-100Credits(exports)100
29Income Payments and Receipts BOP Examples A Marquette University student goes to Mexico on break and spends $500GoodsServicesIncome Payments and ReceiptsUTCapitalDebits(imports)-500Credits(exports)500
30Income Payments and Receipts BOP Examples TotalGoodsServicesIncome Payments and ReceiptsUTCapitalDebits(imports)-50,000-500-1 mil-1,000-100Credits(exports)1 mill1001,00050,000500Current Account-50,400Capital Account50,400
31Net Creditor and Net Debtor Status A net creditor is a nation whose total claims on foreign residents exceed the total claims of foreign residents on the residents of the domestic nation.A net debtor is a nation whose total claims on foreign residents are less than the total claims of foreign residents on the residents of the domestic nation.It is not necessarily good nor bad to be either a net debtor or net creditor.
32The United States as a Net Debtor The United States has been a net debtor at various times in its history. The United States was a net debtor in the late 1800s.SOURCE: Data from Economic Review of the federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
33The Relationship Between the Current Account and the Capital Account Expenditures Approach to National IncomeNational income is the sum of expenditures in the following categories; consumer expenditures, private investment expenditures, government expenditures, and net export expenditures,y= c + ip + g + (x-m)Let the current account, ca equalca = (x – m)Theny=c + ip + g + ca
34The Relationship Between the Current Account and the Capital Account Income ApproachIncome has three possible uses; it can be spent on current consumption, it can be saved (private saving), and we pay taxes to the governmenty= c + sp + tBecause both approaches equal national income, we can set the two identities equal:c + sp + t = c +ip + g + caor, sp – ip – (g - t) = ca
35The Relationship Between the Current Account and the Capital Account Private SavingPrivate saving can be used to purchase three types of assets, domestic private investment, government debt (g – t) or to accumulate foreign assets (fa),sp = ip + (g – t) + fawhere fa is the (net) accumulation of foreign assets (domestic residents’ purchases of foreign assets in excess of foreign residents’ purchases of domestic assets).Then, by rearrangementsp – ip – (g – t) = fa
36The Relationship Between the Current Account and the Capital Account Putting the two together:ca = sp – ip – (g – t) = faIn words, private domestic saving less private domestic investment less the fiscal balance (government saving) equals the current account balance, which also equals the (net) accumulation of foreign assets.
37An Example of the Relationship Between the Current Account and the Capital Account Using the equality we derived,ca = sp – ip – (g – t) = faSuppose a nation’s private saving rate is 5.2 percent of its total output, its private investment rate is 7.3 percent, and its fiscal budget deficit is 3.3 percentca = fa = 5.2 – 7.3 – 3.3 = -5.4.In words, this nation’s residents must borrow from abroad (fa = -5.4) to finance their investment expenditures, resulting in a current account deficit in the amount of 5.4 percent of total output.