Presentation on theme: "Corliss Engine, 1876 Its cylinders spun a flywheel 30 feet in diameter, weighing 56 tons, producing 2500 HP. The Birth of Modern America."— Presentation transcript:
Corliss Engine, 1876 Its cylinders spun a flywheel 30 feet in diameter, weighing 56 tons, producing 2500 HP. The Birth of Modern America
Industrialization: Transformation of an economy from an agricultural base to an industrial base built on the mechanization of labor, and the production of a new product: steel.
During the 1790s, the U.S. Patent Office issued 276 patents for inventions. In the 1890s, it issued 234,956. The late nineteenth century was an era of invention. The most brilliant inventor was “The Wizard of Menlo Park.” From his “invention factory,” Edison patented more than a thousand inventions, (e.g. incandescent light, phonograph, and kinetoscope). A brilliant businessman, he started Edison Film Studio and one of the world’s largest corporations, General Electric. Thomas Alva Edison, 1847-1931: “ Genius is 1 percent inspiration, 99 percent perspiration.”
1. What city in the United States is noted for its laundry-machine making? 2. Who was Leonidas? 3. Who invented logarithms? 4. Where is Magdalena Bay? 5. What is the first line in the Aeneid? 6. What is the weight of air in a room 10 by 20 by 30 feet? 7. Who composed Il Trovatore? 8. What voltage is used on streetcars? 9. Which countries supply the most mahogany? 10. Who was the Roman emperor when Jesus Christ was born? 11. How many cubic yards of concrete in a wall 12 by 20 by 2 feet? 12. Who assassinated President Lincoln? Thomas Edison Job Quiz ANSWERS: 1. Newton, Iowa 2. Spartan general who died at Thermopylae 3. John Napier 4. Baja California 5. Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris 6. Air at 0.075 pounds per cubic foot x 6,000= 450 pounds 7. Giuseppe Verdi 8. 600 volts, at the time 9. Brazil, Bolivia 10. Augustus 11. 17.78 cubic yards 12. John Wilkes Booth
Wright Brothers: Orville and Wilbur, inventors who ran a bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio, and develop the first successful aircraft, flying it in Kitty Hawk, NC, in 1903
Monopoly: One company or one person controlling an industry: Vertical Integration involves control of entire production and distribution process of a good; Horizontal Integration involves control of a sector or part of an industry through several companies
Cornelius Vanderbilt, 1794-1877: First gaining wealth through government contracts after the War of 1812, he turned to railroads as a source for wealth. He consolidated independent railroad lines to create the New York Central Railroad. He gave $1 million to Central University in Nashville which was renamed Vanderbilt University. At the time of his death, he was the richest man in America. His grandson, George Washington Vanderbilt, used some family money to build the Biltmore Estate in Asheville, NC
Born poor in Scotland, he came to the U.S at the age of thirteen and began work in a textile mill. At 14, he started as a telegraph messenger, earning $2.50 per week. Within a few years, he was a telegrapher, then secretary to district superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad, then district superintendent himself. During the Civil War, he developed a military telegraph system. Later, he moved into steel. He bought Homestead Steel in 1882. Over the next 20 years, he monopolized the industry, controlling 60% of nation’s steel business. In 1901, he formed U.S. Steel, the largest corporation in the world at the time. He proclaimed the wealthy are more fit, but argued that they had to help the poor through philanthropy, charitable giving to educational and cultural institutions. Among other efforts, he donated some $55 million to build libraries around the world. Andrew Carnegie, 1835-1919
In 1862, he invested in a kerosene refinery. By 1870, he formed Standard Oil Co. of Ohio. Over the next two years, the oil business grew and competition caused prices to crash. Rockefeller brought order to the chaos by creating state trusts. By 1880, he controlled 90% of oil refining and distribution in the U.S., creating a monopoly through vertical integration. The U.S. Supreme Court in 1911 broke up Standard Oil for violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Hegave away enormous amounts of his wealth ($540 million) in philanthropy, especially to the University of Chicago and the Rockefeller Foundation. John D. Rockefeller, 1839-1937
Year 1 st 2 nd 3 rd 4 th 5 th 10th 1860813,669565,529266,661212,418177,84081,129 1870942,292674,022396,099310,864298,977149,473 18801,206,299847,170566,663503,185362,839216,090 18901,515,3011,099,8501,046,964806,343451,770261,353 19003,437,2021,698,5751,293,697575,238560,892325,902 19104,766,8832,185,2831,549,008687,029670,585423,715 19205,620,0482,701,7051,823,779993,078796,841576,673 Population of Largest Twenty-five Cities, 1860-1920 Rank Urbanization: Transformation of American society from a rural base to an urban base. Although it occurs at the same time as the next wave of immigration occurs, urbanization is not caused by immigration.
Between 1870 and 1910, roughly 20 million people immigrated to the U.S., nine million of them between 1900 and 1910. Unlike earlier waves of immigration, the “New Immigration” came mostly from Eastern and Southern Europe (Russian Jews, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Hungarians, Greeks, and Italians). The tremendous numbers profoundly affected American society, politics, and culture. Most of the immigrants entered through the Ellis Island Immigrant Station in New York City. Opened in 1892, Ellis Island processed some 12 million people before it closed in 1954. In its busiest year, 1907, more than a million people were processed; on its busiest day, immigration officials processed nearly 12,000 new arrivals. Immigrants from Asia were processed through Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. Ellis Island: “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.” A Gift From France, 1886
Political Machines: Political party organization that controlled local or state government. Led by Party “bosses, ” machines served the needs of immigrants, providing them with jobs and contracts in return for political support, but their means were often unethical or illegal – using bribes, graft, and intimidation. The most noted machines include: Tammany Hall in NYC. Politics in the Gilded Age
Thomas Nast: Probably the most famous political cartoonist in U.S. history. His drawings of Boss Tweed illustrated the corruption of political machines. His drawings, however, went beyond New York politics, including this famous early rendition of Santa Claus.
Economic Crises and the Growth of Labor Great Railroad Strike of 1877: 1st interstate labor strike. In all, 100,000 workers struck from Pennsylvania to San Francisco. The strikes failed because they lacked coordination, but scared big business and government, which sought to block labor organization and unions Haymarket Riot: Amid the recession of the 1880s, strikers protested at the International Harvester Co. in Haymarket Square, Chicago. Someone threw a bomb, killing a policeman. The violence turned public opinion against the strikers.
Some people say a man is made out of mud A poor man's made out of muscle and blood Muscle and blood, skin and bones... A mind that's weak and a back that's strong Chorus: You load sixteen tons, and what do you get? another day older and deeper in debt St. Peter, don't you call me, 'cause I can't go I owe my soul to the company store I was born one mornin' and the sun didn't shine I picked up my shovel and I walked to the mine I loaded sixteen tons of number nine coal and the straw boss said, "well bless my soul!".....you loaded... Chorus: I was born one mornin' it was drizzlin' rain fightin' and trouble are my middle name I was raised in a cane-brake by an old mama lion can't no high-toned woman make me walk no line Chorus: If you see me comin', better step aside A lot of men didn't, a lot of men died One fist of iron, the other of steel If the right one don't get you, then the left one will Chorus: “Sixteen Tons” by Merle Travis as sung by Tennessee Ernie Ford
The Farmer’s Revolt EVENTS Farmers overproduce crops Shipping prices increase Farmers borrow more money from banks CAUSES New inventions and more efficient techniques are introduced A lack of competition exists among railroads Machines are needed Money is in short supply (Government tight-money policy) EFFECTS Prices of farm products decline Farmers earnings decrease Farmers are unable to pay back loans Banks lend money to fewer farmers
Populism, the Peoples’ Party: Political movement uniting Farmers and Labor. Meeting in 1892, it created “the Omaha Platform,” calling for legal protection for industrial workers; nationalization of railroads; “free” coinage of silver to inflate the economy; direct election of U.S. Senators; and government control of telephone and telegraph industries. Populists nominated James B. Weaver for POTUS in 1892. The Rise and Fall of Populism
Interstate Commerce Commission: Created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, it is the first federal government regulatory agency. Its mandate was to regulate interstate trade, commerce, railroad rates, etc. “The Consolidation Train”
Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890: Law banning monopolies in interstate commerce. Supreme Court rulings in the 1890s weakened the law. It was not actively enforced until the early 1900s, notably in the case of U.S. v. American Tobacco Co. (1911), which broke up James Buchanan Duke’s monopoly on cigarette production.
Coxey's Army: The Depression of the 1890s devastated the whole country, but farmers and unskilled workers, in particular; millions were unemployed. In 1894, Jacob S. Coxey led a march of unemployed people to Washington to demand bimetalism and other relief in the Populist platform. When they arrived in Washington, Coxey was arrested. The march may have been the inspiration for the children's book The Wizard of Oz.
Progressivism (1890s-1920): The Progressive Era marked the coming together of various reform movements designed to increase democratic participation, to clean up government, to increase the standard of living of the poor, to improve industrial output and working conditions, and to make the U.S. a more moral and healthful nation. The policies began the transformation of federalism in America. The changes expanded the responsibilities and power of the national government, particularly its economic power. The national government began regulating the economy to create a more level playing field for workers and competing businesses. It included reform of voting practices: direct election of Senators (17th Amendment); suffrage for women (19th Amendment); etc.
Social reforms included: Prohibition, banning the sale and manufacture of alcoholic beverages (18th Amendment); government aid to the poor; public works, such as sewers and water treatment, to improve health and hygiene in cities. Economic and business reforms included: Taylorism; reorganization of the banking system (Federal Reserve System); trust-busting; child labor laws; consumer protection laws; and a federal income tax (after ratification of the 16th Amendment) to pay for it all. African Americans were left out of reforms; indeed, for many blacks conditions got worse.
Henry Ford: Inventor of the Assembly Line. Ford Motor Co. revolutionized the automobile industry by bringing the auto to the worker rather than the worker to the auto. In 1908, Ford began selling a low-priced peoples' car, the Model T (a.k.a. “Tin Lizzie”), for $850. Because of improvements in production, it profitably for $290 in 1924
Muckraking: An aggressive type of investigative journalism to expose flaws in American society. Noted muckrakers included: Upton Sinclair -- The Jungle (meat-packing industry); John Spargo -- The Bitter Cry of Children (child labor ); and Jacob Riis -- How the Other Half Lives (urban poverty and health issues). 5¢ Lodging, New York (1890s) The Breakers Mansion, Vanderbilt Family Newport (1890s)
Theodore Roosevelt (T.R.): A larger than life figure: born to wealth in New York City (1858), a sickly boy, he built himself into a robust physical dynamo. He gained national celebrity as hero of the Spanish-American War in Cuba, leading the Rough Riders up San Juan Hill, and won the Republican Vice-POTUS nomination in 1900. When William McKinley was assassinated, TR became the youngest ever to be POTUS (1901-1909). He advanced a conservative Progressive agenda, dramatically enlarging the powers of the president. He became a beloved symbol of national power and unity.
He promised a reform agenda: regulating trusts, ; consumer protection laws, such as the Pure Food and Drug Act; and conservation, creating more national parks system and setting up the U.S. Forest Service. Following precedent, TR retired after his second term. His hand-picked successor, William Howard Taft, won election and TR went on safari. In 1910, he returned and found that Taft had not lived up to his expectations. So he set out to return to the White House in 1912. With Republicans divided, Woodrow Wilson won. He remained in the public eye, particularly as a critic of Wilson. Weakened by recurring bouts of malaria (from Panama), and the death of his son in the war, he died in his sleep on January 5, 1919. As “trust-buster,” writer, conservationist, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, and more, TR is considered one of the top five Presidents in U.S. history – his face is on Mt. Rushmore.
A full hour before the party reached the city they had begun to note the perplexing changes in the atmosphere. It grew darker all the time, and upon the earth the grass seemed to grow less green.... And along with the thickening smoke they began to notice another circumstance, a strange, pungent odor.... The new emigrants were still tasting it, lost in wonder, when suddenly the car came to a halt, and the door was flung open, and a voice shouted--"Stockyards!"... There is over a square mile of space in the yards, and more than half of it is occupied by cattle pens... "And what will become of all these creatures?" cried Teta Elzbieta. "By tonight," Jokubas answered, "they will all be killed and cut up; and over there on the other side of the packing houses are more railroad tracks, where the cars come to take them away.... They don't waste anything here," said the guide, and then he laughed and added a witticism, "They use everything about the hog except the squeal." The Jungle
It was a long, narrow room... At the head there was a great iron wheel, about twenty feet in circumference, with rings here and there along its edge.... It began slowly to revolve, and then the men upon each side of it sprang to work. They had chains which they fastened about the leg of the nearest hog, and the other end of the chain they hooked into one of the rings upon the wheel. So, as the wheel turned, a hog was suddenly jerked off his feet and borne aloft. At the same instant the car was assailed by a most terrifying shriek.... The shriek was followed by another, louder and yet more agonizing-- for once started upon that journey, the hog never came back; at the top of the wheel he was shunted off upon a trolley, and went sailing down the room. Durham advertised "potted chicken,“... Perhaps they had a secret process for making chickens chemically.... The things that went into the mixture were tripe, and the fat of pork, and beef suet, and hearts of beef, and finally the waste ends of veal, when they had any. They put these up in several grades, and sold them at several prices... All this ingenious mixture was ground up and flavored with spices to make it taste like something....
Of the butchers and floorsmen, the beef-boners and trimmers, and all those who used knives, you could scarcely find a person who had the use of his thumb; time and time again the base of it had been slashed, till it was a mere lump of flesh against which the man pressed the knife to hold it.... There were the wool-pluckers, whose hands went to pieces even sooner than the hands of the pickle men; for the pelts of the sheep had to be painted with acid to loosen the wool, and then the pluckers had to pull out this wool with their bare hands, till the acid had eaten their fingers off... Worst of any, however, were men who worked in tank rooms full of steam, and in some of which there were open vats near the level of the floor, their peculiar trouble was that they fell into the vats; and when they were fished out, there was never enough of them left to be worth exhibiting,--sometimes they would be overlooked for days, till all but the bones of them had gone out to the world as Durham's Pure Leaf Lard!
Meat Inspection Act of 1906: Sinclair had hoped to reform conditions for workers in meatpacking plants, but his muckraking led to the first consumer protection laws.
Woodrow Wilson: Democrat, POTUS 1913-1921. Born in Staunton, Virginia, raised in Georgia and South Carolina, he was the first southerner to become POTUS since before the Civil War, having benefited from the split in the Republican vote between TR and William H. Taft in the 1912 election. He was a liberal Progressive reformer. He proved to be a stronger trustbuster than TR. He also lowered tariffs, replacing revenue with an income tax; and oversaw creation of the Federal Reserve System, and passage of federal highway and child labor laws. On the downside, he racially segregated government offices.
Child Labor Laws: In the early 1900s, about 1.5 million workers in the U.S. were under the age of 16. Progressives wanted to end child labor because it not only hurt children, but also older workers because young workers kept wages down for all. In 1904, reformers established the National Child Labor Committee to lobby governments. In 1916, Congress enacted the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act, banning interstate commerce of any item made by laborers under 14 years old. That law was ruled unconstitutional in 1918 in the case of Hammer v. Dagenhart where a Charlotte, NC, father sued to have his two sons work with him in the mill.
Women’s Suffrage Movement The women’s fight for the suffrage began at the Seneca Falls Convention. Wyoming became the first state to grant women the vote, in 1869. The women’s suffrage movement remained stagnant until Progressivism caused many middle-class women to realize that they needed the vote to influence reform legislation. As WWI threatened the U.S., women pressured the Democratic Party to add a suffrage plank to the party’s platform in 1916. After the U.S. entered the war in 1917, the fact that more women were now working in war industries finally tipped the balance. In 1918, Congress passed the 19 th Amendment and in 1920 women finally got the vote nationwide