Presentation on theme: "Demographics & Attitudes of Shoppers at Missouri & Wisconsin Farmers Markets Patience Rhodes Dr. Michael Seipel, mentor Truman State University Ronald."— Presentation transcript:
Demographics & Attitudes of Shoppers at Missouri & Wisconsin Farmers Markets Patience Rhodes Dr. Michael Seipel, mentor Truman State University Ronald E. McNair Program
Introduction Number of farmers markets in the U.S. has increased to 3,100 (in 2002). Federal and state agencies encourage growth of farmers markets. Increase of farmers markets has prompted research.
Literature Review Several studies found that the average shoppers were Caucasian women, from higher income groups, at least 51 years old, and well educated (Eastwood; Kezis; Nayga). Freshness, quality, locally grown, and having direct contact with farmers were found to be the most important considerations for consumers when purchasing produce (Brown; Kezis; Nayga).
Literature Review (cont.) Brown found that households where someone was raised on a farm, or their parents were raised on a farm, were found to have a preference for local produce and a willingness to pay a price premium for those products. Few studies have explicitly compared motivations of shoppers across markets situated in neighborhoods of different socio-economic background.
Research Questions How do the demographics of the shoppers compare to the demographics of the surrounding neighborhoods? Is there any relationship between people who were raised on the farm and their likelihood of supporting local farmers?
Research Questions (cont.) Does motivation for shopping and factors cited in purchasing in a farmers market vary across market location? Does motivation for shopping in a farmers market vary across socio-economic characteristics such as race, ethnicity, and income?
Methodology Four farmers markets –Fondy Farmers Market (Milwaukee, WI) –Green Bay Farmers Market (Green Bay, WI) –Kirkwood Farmers Market (Kirkwood, MO) –Soulard Farmers Market (St. Louis, MO) Convenience sampling –50 participants per market
Methodology (cont.) Questionnaire –How often do you shop at this particular market? –How far do you have to travel to get to the farmers market? –How would you define “locally-produced” fruits and vegetables? –Has your consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables increased or decreased since you have been shopping at the farmers market? –Were you or your parents raised on a farm?
Methodology (cont.) Statistical analysis (SPSS) –Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) –Chi-square tests Qualitative analysis –Responses to open ended questions
Wisconsin Farmers Market Green Bay Farmers Market Fondy Farmers Market
Findings 200 completed surveys Basic demographics –66% female –Average age: 47 years old –68% Caucasian –50% reported household income $25,000 - $74,999. –50% reported educational attainment of a 4 year college degree or higher.
How do the demographics of the shoppers compare to the demographics of the surrounding neighborhoods?
Pct. Non-white Pct. White Distribution by Race: Shoppers vs. Residents of Surrounding Census Tract
Percent with $75,000 or higher household income
Percent with 2-yr., 4-yr. or graduate degree
Is there any relationship between people who were raised on the farm and their likelihood of supporting local farmers?
Mean Ranking of Purchasing Factors and T-test results
Does motivation for shopping at a farmers market vary across market location? *Price: F statistics = 7.467 (P<0.000) *Atmosphere of market: F statistics = 5.433 (P<0.001) *Support local farmers: F statistics = 5.515 (P<0.001)
Do factors cited when purchasing fruits and vegetables vary across market location? *One way ANOVA, F statistic = 7.457 (P<0.000)
Does motivation for shopping in a farmers market vary across demographic characteristics such as race, ethnicity, and income?
*T statistics = 4.134 (P>0.000) Comparison of Male and Female Respondents on Importance of Selected Factors when Purchasing Fruits and Vegetables
Other demographic differences The age group 61 & over tended to rank locally produced as higher importance when buying fruits and vegetables. Respondents with 4 year and graduate degrees gave higher importance to locally produced, quality/freshness when buying fruits and vegetables, and atmosphere of market when choosing a market. Respondents with higher income gave higher importance to atmosphere and support of local farmers when deciding where to shop.
How would you define “locally-produced” fruits and vegetables? (Kirkwood)
How would you define “locally-produced” fruits and vegetables? (Soulard)
How would you define “locally-produced” fruits and vegetables? (Fondy)
How would you define “locally-produced” fruits and vegetables? (Green Bay)
Conclusion For all four markets, shoppers had higher educational attainment and income than neighborhood residents. African-Americans were also underrepresented among shoppers. However, there were also significant differences between shoppers at the different markets, especially in motivations for choosing the market and in factors influencing purchases. Socio-economic characteristics such as gender, age, education, and income have some influence on purchasing decisions. No association being raised on a farm and consumers’ desire to support local farmers as a factor influencing their choice of a farmers market.
Limitations and Further Research Needs Non-random sample may have biased results. –Following groups underrepresented among respondents Senior citizens People with younger children Hispanics Future surveys, using a randomly-drawn sample of frequent shoppers could test these findings. Since local residents are underrepresented among shoppers, research could examine what factors could lead them to shop at the market.
Acknowledgments Ronald E. McNair Program Dr. Michael Seipel, Mentor Green Bay, Fondy, Kirkwood, & Soulard Farmers Markets