Presentation on theme: "Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Diet-Question and Answers"— Presentation transcript:
1 Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Diet-Question and Answers In the small bowel digestive juices from both the liver (termed bile) and the pancreas mix with food. After digested food is broken down into small molecules, it is absorbed through the surface of the small intestine and distributed to the rest of the body by the blood stream. Watery food residue and secretions that are not digested in the small bowel pass on into the large bowel(the colon). The colon reabsorbs much of the water added to food in the small intestine.Solid, undigested food residue is then passed from the large bowel as a bowel movement.When the small bowel is inflamed—as it often is with Crohn’s disease—the bowel becomes less able to digest and absorb food nutrients fully. Such nutrients, as well as unabsorbed bile salts, can escape into the colon to varying degrees, depending on how extensively and how severely the small bowel has been injured by inflammation. This is one reason why people with Crohn’s disease become malnourished, in addition to just not having much appetite. Furthermore, incompletely digested foods that travel through the colon interfere with water absorption , even if the colon itself is not damaged. Thus, when Crohn’s disease affects the small bowel , it may cause diarrhoea as well as malnutrition. Should the colon also be inflamed, the diarrhoea is likely to be worse. In ulcerative colitis, only the colon is inflamed; the small bowel works normally. Because the inflamed colon does not recycle water properly, diarrhoea can be severe.By Nicola AttwoodGastro Dietitian-Colchester HospitalCrohn’s and Colitis Meeting May 2013
2 What is Inflammatory Bowel Disease? Ulcerative ColitisCrohn’s DiseaseIntroductionWe do not know the exact cause of IBD but we do know it is related to the immune system in the gut not “switching off”.Although UC and CD are seen as 2 distinct conditions, it is possible that these conditions exist in a continuum of diseases with UC and CD at opposite ends. There is a theory that 10% of patients has something in-between the two and that is indeterminate colitis.Most people are diagnosed from years old, although it can occur at any age. About 10% of people are diagnosed with it as a child. (<18 year)IndeterminateColitis 10%ChronicNo medical cureChronicNo cure
3 What is Difference between UC and CD? Ulcerative ColitisStarts in the rectumExtends to beginningof large bowel (caecum)Inflammation limited tolining of the colonCrohn’s DiseaseCan effect any part ofthe bowelCan be patchyCan extend through thebowel wallThere are distinct differences between UC and CD and they can be treated differently.
5 Why is malnutrition common in IBD? EffectCauseReduced food intakeMalabsorptionIncreased intestinal lossesDrugsPoor appetite ,pain, nausea, dietary restrictionReduced absorption caused by damaged from inflammation and surgeryAltered absorption and utilisation.Table above explains why malnutrition is common in IBD. IBD patients, especially people with Crohn’s disease, are prone to becoming malnourished for many reasons. The appetite is often reduced leading to poor dietary intake. Active IBD or a flare up may increase the energy (calorie) needs of the body. IBD, particularly Crohn’s disease is often associated with malabsorption of nutrients. There can also be increased intestinal losses from damage to the bowel and previous surgery. Some medications can also affect nutrition such as steroids which can affect calcium. Therefore, the tendency to become malnourished must be addressed. maintenance of good nutrition is a key principle in the management of IBD
6 What vitamin and mineral deficiencies need to be treated? Deficiencies in vitamins and minerals in IBD is commonSupplement with Folic acid, vitamin D, vitamin B complex and vitamin C may be good idea if you are symptomatic.May need calcium if on steroidsSupplement with iron if anaemicSupplement with zinc if there is long-term diarrhoea.Patients with IBD should routinely take folic acid, 1 mg/day because it also helps protect against bowel cancer. Due to high level of deficiencies , supplementation with vitamin B complex and vitamin C should be recommended. May need vitamin D and E supplements if there is malabsorption. Vitamin D supplementation should be in the range of 800 U/day, especially in the non-sunny areas of the country, and calcium intake should be encouraged, Steroid use and Crohn’s disease itself are linked to bone thinning and osteoporosis, so screening with bone density studies is suggested for those at risk.Vitamin B-12 is absorbed in the lower ileum. Therefore, persons with ileitis (Crohn’s disease that affects the ileum) may require injections of vitamin B-12, because they cannot absorb enough from their diet.In most IBD patients, there is no obvious lack of minerals. However, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium supplements may prove necessary in people who have extensive small intestinal disease or who have had substantial lengths of intestine removed through surgery. Iron therapy is helpful to correct anaemia. Oral iron turns the stools black, which can sometimes simulate intestinal bleedingGood idea to supplement with zinc if you have diarrhoea. IBD is often treated with steroids which increase the risk of osteoporosis, so supplement with calcium as well.
7 How is malnutrition treated? Provide extra energy and protein in diet by fortifying foodsAim for small frequent mealsMay need prescription supplements such as Fresubin Energy®, Fortisip ®, Ensure Plus ®, Modulen ® or Elemental 028 ®Supplements? May need nutritional supplements to help treat weight loss.e.g. Fresubin Energy®. These needs to be presccribed. Can get Complan ® or Buildup Shakes ® over the counter.
8 Is There a special diet for those with IBD? Diet for IBD needs to be individualisedDepends of type of disease and part of bowel affectedDepends on previous surgeryAn elimination diet can help identify food intolerancesA low residue diet may be needed if there is a stricture or in a flare-upDietitian is the best guide in selection of most appropriate dietDietary recommendations for people with IBD must be individualised: They depend on which disease you have and what part of your intestine is affected. Many people have food intolerances— far more than really have true food allergies. One of the more common intolerances, lactose intolerance, is the inability to digest lactose (milk sugar), which is related to genetic tendencies and to small bowel function. Elimination tests are better at diagnosing which foods must be avoided or modified than the standard allergy skin or blood testing. Speak to your dietitian about an “elimination diet,” which involves keeping a food and symptom diary over several weeks.About two thirds of people with small bowel Crohn’s disease develop a marked narrowing (or stricture) of the lower small intestine, the ileum. For these patients, a low-fibre with low residue diet (see below) or a special liquid diet may be beneficial in minimising abdominal pain and other symptoms. Often, these dietary modifications are temporary. Keeping a foods and symptom dairy along with the advice of a registered dietitian, remains the single most useful guide to selection of foods for any person with IBD
9 What to eat if IBD is active? Best diet should include foods from all the food groupsChoose low fibre starchy foods, fruit and vegetablesAvoid some foods if intolerance is identifiedSmaller meals are better toleratedAn appropriate diet should contain a variety of foods from all food groups. Meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products, if tolerated, are sources of protein; bread, cereal, starches, fruits, and vegetables are sources of carbohydrate; margarine and oils are sources of fat. Generally, if the colon is inflamed, avoiding scrappy foods such as nuts, corn hulls, and raw vegetables is advised until some healing has occurred.
10 What is a low fibre or low residue diet? These diets help to reduce the amount of “roughage” or residue in the stoolRestriction of raw fruits and vegetables, their skinsRestriction of seeds, nuts and sweet cornRestrict high fibre carbohydrates such as bran, wholemeal, and potato skinsThese diets are used when there is significant diarrhoea, high output stomas or strictures.This diet minimises the consumption of foods that add residue to the stool. These include raw fruits, vegetables, and seeds, as well as nuts and corn hulls. These diets are used when there is significant diarrhoea or stoma output.
12 Recommended foods and those to avoid Food Groups Recommend AvoidGrains Bread and cereals made from refined flours: Wholegrain/meal bread and cereals:(four or more white bread, Cornflakes, Rice krispies, wholewheat/meal bread, granary bread,servings daily) Cheerios, Puffed wheat, Special K, porridge seeded bread, cereals containing bran,Weetabix, Shredded Wheat, muesli orother cereas/snack bars containing bran,dried fruit/coconut or nutswhite rice wholegrain/brown rice, fried ricewhite pasta wholegrain/wheat pastawholegrain/wheat biscuits/crackerswhite flour and foods made with this flour wholemeal/wheat flourPulses None Dried beans including baked beans,lentils, dried peasNuts and seeds None All nuts and seeds and foods containingthem including nut butters, coconutPotatoes Potatoes boiled, mashed, baked without Potato skin, fried potatoes including chips(2 medicum size/day) skin roasted, crisps, potato saladVegetables Well cooked vegetables as follows: Salads and other raw vegetables(2 cups/day) green beans, spinach, pumpkin
13 Food Groups Recommend Avoid Vegetables asparagus tips, beetroot, carrots, seedless brussel sprouts no pips, seeds, husks,strained vegetable soup/vegetable juices, skins or stalks, sweetcorn, cabbage,Vegetables can be pureed if necessary sauerkraut, mushrooms, turnip, onions,leeks, peppersFruit squash, tinned fruit, Fruit juices with pulp, prune juice, fizzy( 2 medium size ripe banana, melon, tomato no skin or seeds, drinks, tinned pineapple, fresh fruitpieces/day) ripe avocado. Jelly jam,shredless preserves,lemon curd. dried fruit, cakes/biscuits containing driedFruit can be pureed if necessary fruit, jam, marmalade with seeds, skins,pips. Mincemeat. Fruit pie/tart/flan.Skin, stalks, seeds, stonesMilk and milk Whole milk up to 300ml (1/2 pint)/day, semi- Full fat cheese, milk puddings madeproducts skimmed up to 450ml (3/4 pint), skimmed with wholegrain ingredientsmilk up to 600ml (1pt), low fat products quiche, pizzaeg plain yogurt or with allowed fruit fromagefrais or milk puddings or custard or cream oricecream without nuts or pieces of fruit,creamy soup with sieved vegetables, plaincottage cheese or low fat cheese, milksubstitudes eg soya milk and plain soyadessertsFats and oils Oil (1 tablespoon/person), low fat margarine, Full fat margarine, coconut cream, lard,butter (scraping), low fat cream sauces suet
14 Food Groups Recommend Avoid Meat and poultry Tender lean meat and poultry, lean Tough/course meats with gristle,(100g/4oz) processed meats eg ham/chicken/turkey luncheon meats, sausages, hotdogs,or bacon cold cuts, meat pies, pasties, pates,fried meat/poultry, meat prepared withwholegrain ingredients/seeds/nutsmeat burgersFish (up to 160g or Fish (white/oily) steamed, poached, boiled, Fried fish and shellfish6oz) tinned in water or oil (discard)Eggs (up to 4/wk) Boiled, poached, scrambled, omelette FriedMiscellaneous Sugar, honey, syrup, boiled sweets, mints Popcorn, pickles, horseradish, relish,caramel, marshmallow, jelly, pepper, salt, herbs, spices, curries, chilli, alcohol,gravy made with water, tomato sauce, soy, mustard, lemon juice, vinegar, garlicsauce, low fat white sauce, chocolates, carbonated drinks. Scones,pastries
15 What to eat when IBD is in Remission? Important to eat foods from all the main foods groupsCan slowly introduce fibre rich foodsAdd one new food at a time and start with small portions-gradually increasingKeep a food and symptom diary to identify food intolerancesGradually build up to anormal diet.
16 Can food make IBD inflammation worse? Nocertain foods in any individual may aggravate symptoms of these diseasesno evidence that the inflammation of the bowel is directly affected.Avoid food out of date or contaminated as food poisoning will aggravate IBDNo. While certain foods in any individual may aggravate symptoms of these diseases, there is no evidence that the inflammation of the gut is directly affected. Any contaminated food that leads to food poisoning will aggravate IBD.
17 Identifying “problem foods” Keeping a food and symptom diary is very importantCommon foods less well tolerated are:alcohol (mixed drinks, beer, wine) , Fizzy drinks, caffeine drinks and fruit juiceSkins, husk and stalks of fruit and vegetablesdairy products (if lactose intolerant)fatty foods (fried foods)foods high in fibre such as whole grains and brangas-producing foods (lentils, beans, legumes, cabbage, broccoli, onions)nuts and seeds (peanut butter, other nut butters)raw fruits and raw vegetablesspicy foods
18 Should someone with active IBD drink more fluid? Yes!chronic diarrhoea increases the risk of dehydrationdehydration and salt loss create a feeling of weakness.people with IBD should drink plenty of fluids, especially in warm weather when skin losses of salt and water may be highYes. In a condition with chronic diarrhoea, there may be a risk of dehydration. If fluid intake does not keep up with diarrhoea, kidney function may be affected. Patients with Crohn’s and other diarrheal diseases have an increased incidence of kidney stones, which is related to this problem. Furthermore, dehydration and salt loss create a feeling of weakness. For these reasons, people with IBD should drink plenty of fluids, especially in warm weather when skin losses of salt and water may be high.
19 Diet tips for IBD-summary Keep a food and symptom diary to identify problem foods that may aggravate symptomsFollow a low residue diet or low fibre diet if having a flare upSmall frequent meals are often better toleratedIf losing weight let us know-you may need supplementsNo special diet for IBD – everyone is difference. Aim for a balance of all the main foods groupsThank You