Presentation on theme: " 7 th Grade. Differentiate between minerals and rocks. Describe the distinguishing properties that can be used to classify minerals. (texture, smell,"— Presentation transcript:
Differentiate between minerals and rocks. Describe the distinguishing properties that can be used to classify minerals. (texture, smell, luster, hardness, crystal shape, streak, reaction to magnets, and acids. Describe the methods used to identify the distinguishing properties of minerals.
_____ are made of ________, but _______ are not made of ______________. What is a mineral? 4 questions 1. Does it have a crystalline structure? 2. Is it a solid? 3. Is it formed in nature? 4. Is it nonliving material?
A _________ is a naturally formed, inorganic solid with a crystalline structure.
Minerals are made up of __________. _______________are pure substances that cannot be broken down into simple substances by ordinary chemical means. All minerals contain one or more of the 92 elements present in the Earth’s crust.
Each element is made of only one kind of atom. A ______ is the smallest part of an element that has all the properties of that element. Most minerals are made up of compounds of several different elements. A __________ is a substance made of two or more elements that have been chemically joined, or bonded together.
Halite is a mineral that is a compound of sodium and chlorine, but gold is just made of gold.
A mineral is also made up of one or more crystals. ______________________ are solid, geometric forms of minerals produced by a repeating pattern of atoms that is present throughout the mineral.
____________ are composed of various minerals. A mineral is just a mineral.
If you found two different types of minerals, how would you know what they are? There are 7 different tests that you can perform to determine what type of mineral you have.
Color of a mineral. Quartz is clear, but if it has impurities it can be just about any color. Color is not a reliable indicator of a mineral’s identity.
The way the surface reflects light is called luster. Shiny or dull. See the luster chart on page 8 Metallic, submetallic, or nonmetallic.
The color a mineral in powdered form is called the mineral’s streak. The color of a sample’s streak is not affected by weathering. Streak is a more reliable than color as an indicator of a mineral’s identity.
Different types of minerals break in different ways. The way a mineral breaks is determined by it’s atoms. ____________ is the tendency of some minerals to break along flat surfaces. P. 9 figure 5 ____________ is the tendency of some minerals to break unevenly along curved or irregular surfaces.
_____________ refers to a mineral’s resistance to being scratched. You can’t scratch a diamond because it is the hardest mineral there is. But talc is one of the softest minerals. Scientist use the __________ hardness scale to determine a minerals hardness. Minerals are rated between 1-10. By trying to scratch a mineral with other minerals to determine its place on the scale