Presentation on theme: "COLLEGE STUDENTS & GAMBLING Meri Haunstein. Quick Facts 50.4% Male college students who gamble on cards at least once a month. 26.6% Female students who."— Presentation transcript:
COLLEGE STUDENTS & GAMBLING Meri Haunstein
Quick Facts 50.4% Male college students who gamble on cards at least once a month. 26.6% Female students who gamble on cards at least once a month $3.1 billion: Internet gambling revenue in 2001. $12 billion: Estimated internet gambling revenue in 2005. Source: Anneberg Public Policy Center (2005). 2005 National Anneberg Risk Survey of Youth; Christansen Capital Advisors, LLC
Scoring the SOGS Question 1, 2 and 3 not counted: 4. Most of the time I lose or every time I lose 5 Yes, less than half the time I lose or yes, most of the time 6. yes, in the past but not now or yes 7. thru 11. each yes is one point 12. Not scored 13. Thru 16.i. Each yes one point 16. j. and k. not scored
PROBLEM GAMBLING “Gambling behavior which causes disruptions in any major area of life: psychological, physical, social, or vocational” (National Council on Problem Gambling) PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING A chronic disorder that results in the loss of control over gambling. (DSM-IV)(312.31)
Pathological Gambling DSM- IV Criteria Preoccupation –1. Is preoccupied with gambling (e.g., reliving past gambling experiences, handicapping or planning the next venture, or thinking of ways to get money with which to gamble. Tolerance –2. needs to gamble with increasing amounts of money in order to achieve the desired excitement. Withdrawal –3. Is restless or irritable when attempting to cut down or stop gambling Escape –4. Gambles as a way of escaping from problems or relieving a dysphoric mood (feelings of helplessness, guilt, anxiety, or depression)
Chasing –5. After losing money gambling, often returns another day in order to get even. Lying –6. Lies to family members, therapists, or others to conceal the extent of involvement with gambling. Loss of Control –7. Has made repeated unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or stop gambling. Illegal Acts –8. Has committed illegal acts (forgery, fraud, theft, or embezzlement) to finance gambling) Pathological Gambling DSM- IV Criteria
Risked significant relationship –9. Has jeopardized or lost a significant relationship, job, education, or career opportunity because of gambling. Bailout –10. Has relied on others to provide money to relieve a desperate financial situation caused by gambling.
Pathological Gambling DSM- IV Criteria Scores –Pathological gamblers endorse 5 or more of the 10 criteria. –“Problem Gamblers” endorse 3 or 4 of the 10 criteria. –At “risk gamblers” score 1-2 of the criteria. –Best items: 3, 1, 5, 6, & 9.
SOGS Scoring KEY 0 = NO PROBLEM 1-4 = SOME PROBLEM 3-4 = PROBLEM GAMBLER 5 or More = PROBABLE PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLER Many gamblers presenting for care score over 10 on the SOGS.
Telling the Difference SOCIAL GAMBLING –Occasional Gambler –Hopes to win but expects to lose. –Gambles for entertainment. –Sets & sticks to limits of money and time. PROBLEM GAMBLING –Spends more time gambling/planning to gamble. –Expects to win; keeps playing to win back losses. –Gambles to win, or to escape problems. –Keeps playing. Uses needed $ or borrows.
Reasons students say they gamble Chance to win money Excitement of placing a bet Spend time with friends Distraction from everyday life Think it’s a fast and easy way to get rich quick To fit in or be accepted The rush of winning To feel important
College Students Bet On: Poker or other card games Dice, video or board games for money Car, horse, or dog racing Lottery games Slot or electronic poker machines Stock market Games of skill, like pool, golf, darts, or bowling School, professional or fantasy sports Source: http://www.gamblinghelp.org.sections/college/inside.htmlhttp://www.gamblinghelp.org.sections/college/inside.html
Where do college students gamble Gamble on campus At friend’s homes Nearby casinos, and racetracks Their own room. Source: http://www.gamblinghelp.org.sections/college/inside.htmlhttp://www.gamblinghelp.org.sections/college/inside.html
A NEW CAMPUS FAVORITE: INTERNET GAMBLING More than 1,400 internet casinos- all offshore Concerns- so new that effects are not well studied not much legal oversight or protection very easy to hide done in isolation accelerated progression to problem gambling Very accessible (gamble in your room in your underwear)
Athletes vs. Non-Athletes General gambling –Athletes 81% –Non-Athletes 81% 28% of athletes gambled on athletic events Rate of problem gambling: –Athletes 6.2% –Non-athletes 3.3%
Most Popular Gambling Activities Among Athletes Sports betting –25% gambled on sports –4% gambled on events they were involved in –Playing cards for money –Lotteries –Casino games –Casino-style machines (e.g., slots & video poker) Source: Miller et. Al, 2001
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Survey Nearly 70% of male student-athletes reported gambling in the past year versus 47% among females. About 35% of males and 10% of females admitted to wagering on a sporting event in the past year, which is a direct violation of NCCA bylaws regarding sports wagering. 20% of males and %5 of females bet on collegiate sporting events in the past year, even though if caught they would be banned from playing at an NCAA school for the rest of their lives. Source: http://www.gamblinghelp.org.sections/college/inside.htmlhttp://www.gamblinghelp.org.sections/college/inside.html
22% of male athletes and 6% of female student-athletes also admitted betting on football pools or with a bookie (a person who takes bets, typically for illegal activities) Among Division I, II, and III male student- athletes, 17% were classified as “potential problem gamblers or worse” versus 3% among their female counterparts. Overall, less than 5% of males and one-half of 1% of females were categorized as problem or compulsive gamblers. Source: http://www.gamblinghelp.org.sections/college/inside.htmlhttp://www.gamblinghelp.org.sections/college/inside.html
Making the Connections between Gambling and Risky Behaviors Well-demonstrated relationship of problem gambling with other risky behaviors Excessive alcohol use & binge drinking Regular tobacco use Illicit drug use Overeating/binge eating Academic & athletic failure Crime Debt Depression & Suicide Relationship problems Source: Engwall & Steinberg, 2003: Ladouceur, Dube, & Bujold, 1994,; Lesieur, et at., 1991