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An Invitation to Health Chapter 4 The Joy of Fitness Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

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Presentation on theme: "An Invitation to Health Chapter 4 The Joy of Fitness Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Invitation to Health Chapter 4 The Joy of Fitness Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

2 What Is Physical Fitness? Definition The ability to respond to routine physical demands while retaining enough reserve energy to cope with a sudden challenge.

3 Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness Aerobic and Cardiorespiratory Endurance BodyCompositionMuscularFlexibility Muscular Strength and Endurance

4 Defining the Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness Aerobic or CardiorespiratoryEndurance CardiorespiratoryEndurance The ability of the body to sustain prolonged rhythmic activity. MuscularStrengthMuscularStrength The force within muscles; it is measured by the absolute maximum weight that we can lift, push, or press in one effort. The force within muscles; it is measured by the absolute maximum weight that we can lift, push, or press in one effort. MuscularEnduranceMuscularEndurance The ability to perform repeated muscular effort; it is measured by counting how many times you lift, push, press a given weight. The ability to perform repeated muscular effort; it is measured by counting how many times you lift, push, press a given weight. FlexibilityFlexibility The range of motion around specific joints. The range of motion around specific joints. Body Composition The relative amounts of fat and lean tissue (bone, muscle, organs, water) in the body. The relative amounts of fat and lean tissue (bone, muscle, organs, water) in the body.

5 The Inactivity Epidemic 1 in 4 Americans reports no physical activity at all. 1 in 4 Americans reports no physical activity at all. City-dwellers are more active than country folks. City-dwellers are more active than country folks. Men, people with higher education levels, and high- income earners work out more often. Men, people with higher education levels, and high- income earners work out more often. Mexican Americans, African- American and Hispanic men and women exercise less than their white counterparts. Mexican Americans, African- American and Hispanic men and women exercise less than their white counterparts.

6 Campus Couch Potatoes

7 Why College Students Exercise – or Don’t Top Exercise Benefits 1. Exercise increases my level of physical fitness. 2. Exercise improves the way my body looks. 3. My muscle tone is improved with exercise. 4. Exercise gives me a sense of personal accomplishment. 5. Exercise increases my muscle strength. Top Exercise Barriers 1. Exercise tires me. 2. Exercise is hard work for me. 3. I am fatigued by exercise. 4. Exercising takes too much time. 5. My family members do not encourage me to exercise.

8 Sedentary Death Syndrome (SeDS) Definition Term used to describe deaths that are attributed to a lack of regular physical activity.

9 Are You Ready to Become More Active? Pre-contemplation Not active and not thinking about being active. Contemplation Not active, but thinking about becoming active. Preparation Active, but not at recommended levels. Action and Maintenance Active at recommended levels for less than 6 months.

10 The Benefits of Exercise

11 Longer life. Protection against heart disease and certain cancers. Better bones. Enhanced immunity. Brighter mood. Better mental health. Lower weight. A more active old age.

12 Motivating to Move Use the buddy system. Sign-up for a fitness class. Find a fun workout. Use humor. Build activity into your day. Do double-duty.

13 Guidelines for Physical Fitness: The FITT Principle Cardio- respiratory StrengthFlexibility F requency 3-5 days/week 2-3 days/week I ntensity 60-85% max heart rate Progressive overloading Enough to develop and maintain a full range of motion. T ime minutes 8-12 repetitions of 8-10 exercises 4 reps of seconds per muscle group T ype of Activity Aerobic activity Resistance activity Stretching activity

14 How Much Exercise is Enough? American College of Sports Medicine, the United States Surgeon General, and Health Canada’s Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living. American College of Sports Medicine, the United States Surgeon General, and Health Canada’s Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living. Minimum of minutes of moderate activity most days of the week to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Minimum of minutes of moderate activity most days of the week to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Sciences 60 minutes of moderate exercise every day in order to maintain a healthy weight and gain additional health benefits. 60 minutes of moderate exercise every day in order to maintain a healthy weight and gain additional health benefits.

15 Types of Exercise Aerobic Exercise “with oxygen” Examples: Examples: Brisk walking, running, swimming, and cycling Brisk walking, running, swimming, and cycling Two Types: Two Types: High-impact aerobics High-impact aerobics Low-impact aerobics Low-impact aerobics Anaerobic Exercise High-intensity activity that does not require oxygen to produce the desired energy to carry out the activity. Examples: Sprinting, weight lifting

16 Are You Working Hard Enough? Resting Heart Rate Resting Heart Rate The quicker your heart recovers after exercise, the better your condition. The quicker your heart recovers after exercise, the better your condition. Target Heart Rate Target Heart Rate 60-85% of your maximum heart rate 60-85% of your maximum heart rate For weight loss = 60-70% of max heart rate For weight loss = 60-70% of max heart rate To improve aerobic endurance and strengthen your heart = 70-80% max heart rate To improve aerobic endurance and strengthen your heart = 70-80% max heart rate Maximum Heart Rate Maximum Heart Rate 220 – your age 220 – your age Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)

17 Calculating Target Heart Zone Using The Karvonen Formula

18 Target Heart Rates for Ages and Various Activities

19 Borg Scale for Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)

20 Phases of an Exercise Session Warm-UpCool-Down WorkoutSession

21 Phases of an Exercise Program Beginning (4-6 weeks) Progression (16-20 weeks) Maintenance (lifelong)

22 Aerobic Exercise Options Walking Jogging and Running SwimmingCyclingSpinning Skipping Rope Aerobic Dancing Step Training or Bench Activities Stair-Climbing Inline Skating Tennis

23 Benefits of Strength Training on the Body

24 Types of MuscularContractions Isometric Isokinetic Isotonic

25 Major Muscle Groups of the Body

26 Primary Muscle Groups Deltoids (shoulders) Deltoids (shoulders) Pectorals (chest) Pectorals (chest) Triceps and Biceps (back and front of upper arm) Triceps and Biceps (back and front of upper arm) Quadriceps and Hamstrings (front and back of thighs) Quadriceps and Hamstrings (front and back of thighs) Gluteus maximus (buttocks) Gluteus maximus (buttocks) Trapezius and Rhomboids (back) Trapezius and Rhomboids (back) Abdomen Abdomen

27 Working With Weights Repetitions Repetitions The single performance of an exercise. The single performance of an exercise. Sets Sets A set number of repetitions of the same movement. A set number of repetitions of the same movement. Always train your entire body, starting with the larger muscle groups. Always train your entire body, starting with the larger muscle groups. Maintain proper breathing (i.e. don’t hold your breath). Maintain proper breathing (i.e. don’t hold your breath). Allow no less than 48 hours, but no more than 96 hours between training sessions. Allow no less than 48 hours, but no more than 96 hours between training sessions. Aim for two to three 30-minute workouts a week. Aim for two to three 30-minute workouts a week. Free weights and strength training machines both offer benefits and drawbacks. Free weights and strength training machines both offer benefits and drawbacks.

28 Performance Boosting Drugs Androstenodione Description Description A testosterone precursor normally produced by the adrenal glands and gonads. A testosterone precursor normally produced by the adrenal glands and gonads. Claims Claims Improves testosterone concentration, increases muscular strength and mass, helps reduce body fat, enhances mood, and improves sexual performance. Improves testosterone concentration, increases muscular strength and mass, helps reduce body fat, enhances mood, and improves sexual performance. Risks Risks Breast enlargement, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and pancreatic cancer in men, acne, male pattern baldness, and a decrease in “good” (HDL) cholesterol. Breast enlargement, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and pancreatic cancer in men, acne, male pattern baldness, and a decrease in “good” (HDL) cholesterol. In women, high testosterone levels can cause increased body hair, deepening of the voice, and other male characteristics. In women, high testosterone levels can cause increased body hair, deepening of the voice, and other male characteristics.

29 Performance Boosting Drugs Anabolic Steroids Description Description A synthetic derivative of the male hormone testosterone that promotes the growth of the skeletal muscle and increase lean body mass. A synthetic derivative of the male hormone testosterone that promotes the growth of the skeletal muscle and increase lean body mass. Claims Claims Enhances performance and improves physical appearance. Enhances performance and improves physical appearance. Reported to increase lean muscle mass, strength, and the ability to train longer and harder. Reported to increase lean muscle mass, strength, and the ability to train longer and harder. Risks Risks Liver tumors, jaundice, fluid retention, high blood pressure, severe acne, aggression and other psychiatric side effects. Liver tumors, jaundice, fluid retention, high blood pressure, severe acne, aggression and other psychiatric side effects. Men: Shrinking testicles, reduced sperm count, infertility, baldness, and development of breasts. Men: Shrinking testicles, reduced sperm count, infertility, baldness, and development of breasts. Women: growth of facial hair, changes in or cessation of the menstrual cycle, enlargement of the clitoris, and deepened voice. Women: growth of facial hair, changes in or cessation of the menstrual cycle, enlargement of the clitoris, and deepened voice.

30 Performance Boosting Drugs Creatine Description Description Amino acid made by the body and stored predominantly in skeletal muscle. Creatine serves as a reservoir to replenish adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a substance involved in energy production. Amino acid made by the body and stored predominantly in skeletal muscle. Creatine serves as a reservoir to replenish adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a substance involved in energy production. Claims Claims Creatine supplements increase muscle stores of the compound, which theoretically allows athletes to work out harder and longer. Creatine supplements increase muscle stores of the compound, which theoretically allows athletes to work out harder and longer. Risks Risks Water retention, weight gain, muscle cramping, diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and kidney dysfunction. Water retention, weight gain, muscle cramping, diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and kidney dysfunction. No benefit for lower-intensity, longer-duration exercises. No benefit for lower-intensity, longer-duration exercises.

31 Other Popular Performance Boosting Drugs Caffeine Baking Soda Gamma Butyrolactone (GBL) Glycerol

32 Benefits of Flexibility Training

33 Types of Stretching Static Stretching Static Stretching Passive Stretching Passive Stretching Active Stretching Active Stretching Ballistic Stretching Ballistic Stretching

34 Typical Body Composition of an Adult Man and Women

35 Body Composition Assessment Body Mass Index Waist Size Bioelectrical Impedance Waist-to-Hip Ratio Skinfold Fat Measurement The Bod Pod Dual X-ray Absorptiometry Hydrostatic Weighing

36 Body Mass Index Definition An index of a person’s weight in relation to height An index of a person’s weight in relation to height Body composition not considered! Body composition not considered! BMI = weight (lb) / [height (in)] 2 x 705 Example BMI = 170 lb / [72”] 2 x 705 = 23

37 Body Mass Index (BMI)

38 Nutrition for an Active Life Timing of meals Timing of meals You can exercise 3-4 hours after a large meal. You can exercise 3-4 hours after a large meal. You can exercise 1-2 hours after a small meal. You can exercise 1-2 hours after a small meal. Fluids Fluids Consume at least 2 cups of fluid 2 hours before exercising and again minutes before exercise. Consume at least 2 cups of fluid 2 hours before exercising and again minutes before exercise. If the climate is hot and humid, consume 4-6 ounces of water or sports drink every 15 minutes. If the climate is hot and humid, consume 4-6 ounces of water or sports drink every 15 minutes. After exercise consume at least 2 cups per pound of body weight lost during the activity. After exercise consume at least 2 cups per pound of body weight lost during the activity. Energy Bars, and Sport and Protein Drinks Energy Bars, and Sport and Protein Drinks

39 RICES Concept for Treatment of Injury RRest I Ice application CCompression EElevation S Support and stabilization

40 Preparing for the Weather Hot, Humid Weather Workout in the cooler parts of the day. Workout in the cooler parts of the day. Wear light, porous clothing. Wear light, porous clothing. Slow down and shorten your exercise session. Slow down and shorten your exercise session. Drink ounces of fluid minutes before exercise and 6-8 ounces every 15 minutes during exercise. Drink ounces of fluid minutes before exercise and 6-8 ounces every 15 minutes during exercise. Cold Weather Dress in layers. Protect exposed areas. Cover your mouth with a mask or scarf on very cold days. Wear special cold weather clothing. Don’t forget to drink plenty of fluids.

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