Alkaline solutions Another name for basic solutions
Hydronium ion H 3 O + Is a H + attached to a water molecule. Results in an acidic hydrogen
Monoprotic acids Have only one acidic hydrogen. (Ex: HCl)
Diprotic acid Has 2 acidic hydrogens.
Triprotic acid Contains 3 acidic hydrogens.
ACID-BASE THEORIES The most general theory for common aqueous acids and bases is the BRØNSTED - LOWRY theoryThe most general theory for common aqueous acids and bases is the BRØNSTED - LOWRY theory ACIDS DONATE H + IONSACIDS DONATE H + IONS BASES ACCEPT H + IONSBASES ACCEPT H + IONS
Bronsted - Lowrey Came up with a theory that states an acid is a H + donor, a base as a H + acceptor.
pH range 0-14
K w - ion - product constant for H 2 O = 1 x (mol / L) 2
K w = [H + ] x [OH - ] Remember K w = 1 x (mol / L) 2
Problem Find the [ OH - ] if the [ H + ] = 1 x M Work 1 x (mol / L) 2 = 1 x M x [ OH - ] Answer: [ OH - ] = 1 x M
Problem Find the [ H + ] if the [OH - ] = 1 x M. Work 1 x (mol / L) 2 = 1 x M x [ H + ] Answer: [ H + ] = 1 x M
pH = - log [H +]
Note: Must be the hydrogen ion NOT the hydroxide. Number used to denote the hydrogen - ion concentration, of a solution it is the negative logarithm of the H + ion concentration of a solution
Problem: Find the pH if the [H + ] = 1 x M. Is this an acid or base. Answer Base
Work Using calculator if you have the [H + ] put this number in then hit LOG and multiply by -1. pH = - ( 1 x M) hit LOG Answer= pH = 10 therefore this is a base.