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Effect of produced water salinity on wax precipitation in oil TPG 4520 - Specialization Course Carolin Gjengedal Department for Petroleum Engineering and.

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Presentation on theme: "Effect of produced water salinity on wax precipitation in oil TPG 4520 - Specialization Course Carolin Gjengedal Department for Petroleum Engineering and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effect of produced water salinity on wax precipitation in oil TPG Specialization Course Carolin Gjengedal Department for Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics June 10 th, 2013

2 Outline Part 1: Background Information Part 2: Case Study Discussion

3 Wax Napthenic Hydrocarbons Paraffin WaxMicrocrystalline Wax General Formula of Paraffin (Source: G. A Monsoori)

4 Colloidal Dispersion Dispersed Phase Continuous Phase Emulsions: Liqiud dispersed in liquid W/O Emulsion Suspensions: Solid dispersed in liquid Wax Two-phase system consisting of particle/drops/bubbles of one phase dispersed in another continuous phase. (1 nm – 10 μm)

5 Van der Waals Forces Attractive forces between atoms, molecules or particles: Attractive interaction energy Between two spherical Particles of the same radii, Rs Separation between particles: d Rs

6 The Electrical Double Layer Variation in the ion density near a charged surface. When a charged particle is present in an aqueous solution it is influenced by the ionic strengt in the solution. Counter-Ion: Ion of opposite charge Co-Ion: Ion of equal charge (Source: G. Øye)

7 Aggregation - Colloidal Instability Stable Suspension Unstable Suspension

8 Zeta Potential Describing Colloidal Stability Henry´s Equation: Used to calculate the Zeta Potential ζ : Zeta potential. u : Electrophoretic mobility. ε : Dielectric constant. η: Viscosity κ: Debye-Hückel parameter Rs: Particle radius ƒ(κRs) : Henry’s function. (Zetasizer Nano Series )

9 Colloial Stability & DLVO Theory ( Derjagin-Landau and Verwey-Overbeek) Φ Tot = Φ R +Φ A Φ = Interaction energy R = Repulsive A = Attractive Van der Vaals Attraction Electrostatic Repulsion Interaction energy between dispersed particles

10 Colloidal Stability & DLVO Theory ( Derjagin-Landau and Verwey-Overbeek) Total Ineraction Energy Energy minimum : Coagulation – Instability Energy barrier : Obstacle to Coagulation - Stable Secondary minimum : Reversible Aggregation (Source: G. Øye)

11 High zeta potential  Large repulsion between particles Large Hamaker constant  Large attraction between particles Colloidal Stability & DLVO Theory ( Derjagin-Landau and Verwey-Overbeek)

12 Water (Source: Gudmundsson, 2009) Type of WaterTDS [%] Fresh Water< 0,05 Brackish Water0,05 – 3 Seawater3 – 5 Formation Water> 5 TDS = Total Dissolved Solids

13 Water (M. Abdou et al., 2011) Ionic Components in Formation Water CationsAnions Sodium[Na + ]Chloride[Cl - ] Magnesium[Mg 2+ ]Sulfate[SO 4 2- ] Calcium[Ca 2+ ]Bicarbonate[HCO 3 - ] Potassium[K + ]Carbonate[CO 3 2- ] Manganese[Mn 2+ ]Hydroxide[OH - ] Strontium[Sr 2+ ]Borate[BO 3 - ] Barium[Ba 2+ ]Bromide[Br - ] Iron[Fe 2+, Fe 3+ ]Phosphate[PO 4 3- ]

14 Paraffinic Hydrocarbons in Aqueous Suspensions (S. N. Srivastava and D. A. Haydon, 1963) Aqueous PhaseZeta Potential [mV] 0,01M KCl- 55 0,01M KCl + 3,91  M UO 2 (NO 3 ) ,01M KCl + 3,08  M BaCl ,01M KCl + 1,75  M Pb(NO 3 ) ,02M KCl- 46 Aggregation of paraffin wax suspension depending on electrolyte concentration

15 PREPARATION 100 mL of water or electrolyte solution was heated to °C 0,1 g of pharmaceutical paraffin wax was added. The paraffin melted at this temperature The content was homogenized The suspension of solid particles of paraffin was obtained by cooling Electro kinetic Properties of Paraffin Suspensions In Water & Electrolyte Solutions (E. Chibowski et al., 2005) ELECTROLYTES NaCl LaCl 3 Natural pH of the suspension In water: 6.6 ( ) In NaCl: 6,8 In LaCl 3 : 6,64-6,68

16 MEASUREMENT POINTS: 40 min 50 min 60 min 70 min 80 min 90 min 120 min 24 h Electro kinetic Properties of Paraffin Suspensions In Water & Electrolyte Solutions (E. Chibowski et al., 2005) SOLUTIN pH: pH = 4 pH = Neutral pH = 10

17 Electro kinetic Properties of Paraffin Suspensions In Water (E. Chibowski et al., 2005) Zeta potentials of paraffin particles in water at different pH and time. Bars = Standard errors.

18 Electro kinetic Properties of Paraffin Suspensions In Electrolyte Solutions (E. Chibowski et al., 2005 ) Zeta potensials of paraffin particles in M NaCl at different pH and time Zeta potensials of paraffin particles in M LaCl 3 at different pH and time

19 Electro kinetic Properties of Paraffin Suspensions In Electrolyte Solutions (E. Chibowski et al., 2005 ) Zeta potensials of paraffin particles in M NaCl at different pH and time Zeta potensials of paraffin particles in M LaCl 3 at different pH and time

20 Summarized Ion concentration is affecting the zeta potential, which again is reflecting a suspensions stability Higher ion concentration will destabilize water-wax suspensions

21 Discussion Salt will have almost no influence on wax precipitation because the salt is sustained in the aqueous phase, and wax is sustained in the oil phase. The wax will not be in contact with the salt in the water phase, and the salt will not be in contact with wax in the oil phase

22 Discussion Wax precipitation depends almost entirely on the temperature and temperature gradients. (Kristofer Paso – Kjemi, NTNU)

23 References Chibowski, Emil, Agneszka Ewa Wiacek, Lucna Holysz, og Konrad Terpilowski. «Investigation of the Electrokinetic Properties of Paraffin Suspension. 1. In Inorganic Electrolyte Solutions.» Paper, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Guðmundsson, Jón Steinar. TPG 4135, Prosessering av Petroleum, Grunnleggende enhetsoperasjoner i produksjon av olje og gass.. Trondheim: Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics, Hiemenz, Paul C, og Raj Rajagopalan. Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry Mansoori, GA. «Thermodynamics Research Laboratory.» The University of Illinois at Chicago. (funnet June 9, 2013). Medhat, Abdou, et al. Finding Value in Formation Water. Report, Schumberger, Oilfield Review Spring, Nelson, Jessica DeGroote, Drucker, Jarrett A, Andrew A Haefner, og Robert A Wiederhold. «Varying electro-kinetic interactions to achieve predictable removal rates and smooth surfaces on ZnS.» Ocean Health. Ocean Health. 9 June Sirvastava, S. N, og D. A Haydon. «Estimate of the Hamaker COnstant For Paraffinic Hydrocarbons in Aqueous Suspensions.» Paper, Department of Colloid Science, University of Cambridge, Gisle Øye, Lecture notes in TKP4115 Surface- and Colloid Chemistry Zetasizer Nano Series. «Zeta Potential theory.»


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