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A National Centre of Excellence in Electromaterials Science Professor Doug MacFarlane FAA FTSE ARC Federation Fellow School of Chemistry Monash University.

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Presentation on theme: "A National Centre of Excellence in Electromaterials Science Professor Doug MacFarlane FAA FTSE ARC Federation Fellow School of Chemistry Monash University."— Presentation transcript:

1 A National Centre of Excellence in Electromaterials Science Professor Doug MacFarlane FAA FTSE ARC Federation Fellow School of Chemistry Monash University

2 Electromaterials Science Artificial Photosynthesis Energy Generation Energy Storage Bionics Corrosion and Interfacial Science Wollongong Deakin/Monash Universities

3 Prof Gordon Wallace FAA FTSE Federation Fellow Director, ACES, UoW Prof Leone Spicca ACES Monash Prof Doug MacFalane FAA FTSE Federation Fellow Energy Program Leader, ACES, Monash Prof David Officer Materials Program Leader ACES UoW ACES People Prof Maria Forsyth Australian Laureate Fellow Associate Director ACES Deakin

4 ACES People Nobel Laureate Alan McDairmid (ACES Advisory Board Chairman until his death in 2009) with ACES students and postdocs (and Prof MacFarlane)

5 ACES Outcomes Publications in: Science, Nature Chemistry, Nature Nanotechnology, Advanced Materials Typically more than 150 papers published per year Typically approx 4 patent applications per year Aquahydrix spin out company Hosts 3 Centre workshops per year plus one national conference Hosts > 30 visiting students and researchers from all over the world, per year.

6 ACES Funding Funding from the Australian Research Council - core funding approx $2.5 M per year - Fellow salaries (Australian Postdoctoral Fellows, Future Fellows, Federation Fellows, Laureate Fellows) approx $2.0M per year Funding from partner Universities approx $1.0M per year State government funding approx $800k per year

7 Nanostructured Electromaterials Energy Medical Bionics ACES Programs

8 A National Centre With Global Collaborations ACES Drawing students, working with collaborators and building commercial linkages in 18 countries

9 Energy Program Energy Program Program Leader Professor Doug MacFarlane FAA FTSE – Monash University Goal: Advanced Sustainable Energy Generation and Storage Program Themes - Advanced Batteries (Li, Mg, Na) - Dye sensitised solar cells - Solar water splitting (Hydrogen Generation) Aquahydrix spin-out - CO 2 reduction to fuels - Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Production - Thermocells

10 Renewable Energy Issues Less than 10% of Australia’s energy comes form renewable sources Often generated in remote areas Energy storage a limiting factor Clean Energy 2010 Report -

11 Energy Storage Technologies

12 Comparison of energy densities for various battery chemistries – [http://www.nexergy.com/battery- density.htm] Power/Energy characteristics of batteries Ionic Liquid electrolytes for metal air batteries Salts that are liquid at room temperature! – Stabilise metal anode – Low volatility – reduce evaporation – Good solubility of discharge products – Improved safety

13 Organic solvent electrolytes: Ethylene carbonate Diethyl carbonate Problems: high vapor pressure, flammable , leakage Armand, M. et. al. Nat Mater 2009, 8, 621

14 Ionic liquids as stable electrolytes for Iithium batteries Ionic liquids and reactions at the electrochemical interface. D.R. MacFarlane, J.M. Pringle, P.C. Howlett, M. Forsyth, Phys.Chem. Chem. Phys. 2010, 12, 1659 > 99% Li cycling efficiency demonstrated P. C. Howlett, D. R. MacFarlane and A. F. Hollenkamp, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 2004, 7, A97-A101. Li reactivity – a problem for the electrolyte => ILs provide a solution

15 Magnesium-Air Batteries Battery SystemEnergy Density MJ/kg Pb-acid0.08 Li ion Li metal1.3 Mg-air8 Petrol47 Howlett PC et al The effect of potential bias on the formation of Ionic liquid generated surface films on Mg alloys. Electrochim. Acta  Cheaper than other high performance batteries (Mg $2,700/ton, Li $65,000/ton)  Magnesium is non-toxic, biocompatible and environmentally friendly We have shown IL can passivate Mg

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17 Manganese oxide catalysts Catalytic performance of the manganese oxide in 1 M NaOH and various catalysts BAS – 0.4M dibutyl ammonium sulfate pH10, BAS-IL - 2M dibutyl ammonium sulfate pH10 F. Zhou, A. Izgorodin, R.K. Hocking, L. Spiccia, D.R. MacFarlane, Electrodeposited MnOx Films from Ionic Liquid for Electro-Catalytic Water Oxidation, Adv. Energy Mater. (2012) In print M. W. Kanan, D. G. Nocera, Science 321, 1072 (2008). G. Lodi, E. Sivieri, A. de Battisti, S. Trasatti, J. App. Electrochem. 8, 135 (1978). S. Gottesfeld, S. Srinivasan, J. Electroanal. Chem. 86, 89 (1978). MnCat – manganese dioxide deposited from aqueous elecrolyte Dau et al Energy and Environ Sci in press 2012 Energy loss, % Ideal Catalyst Good Catalyst Bad Catalyst

18 Hydrogen peroxide production Concentration of H 2 O 2 detected over time in the BAS electrolyte with and without MnO 2 disproportionation catalyst. Izgorodin et al Patent Application March 2012

19 Thermoelectrochemical Cells Utilise a redox couple dissolved in an electrolyte. The potential of the redox couple changes with temperature. Magnitude of change again given by the Seebeck coefficient S e S e = Δ V/ ΔT = ∆S/ nF  Majority of prior research has focussed on aqueous electrolytes: 0.4M Fe(CN) 6 3-/4- gives S e 1.4 mV K -1.  Current improved using MWNT electrodes.* Hu, Cola, Haram, Barisci, Lee, Stoughton, Wallace, Too, Thomas, Gestos, dela Cruz, Ferraris, Zakhidov, Baughman. Nanoletters 2010, 10, 838

20 ILs in Thermoelectrochemical Cells – Use of IL electrolytes as replacement for water: – increases operational temperature up to ca. 200 o C:  heating/cooling water pipes in power stations.  geothermal activity – Increased device lifetime through use of non-volatile electrolytes. – Targeting large scale, low cost devices. * Hu et al. Nanoletters 2010, 10, 838.

21 Further Information


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