Presentation on theme: "Chapter #13 Solutions NearingZero.net. Chapter 13.1 Types of Mixtures Heterogeneous mixtures have compositions that are not uniform. Examples milk, soil,"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 13.1 Types of Mixtures Heterogeneous mixtures have compositions that are not uniform. Examples milk, soil, vegetable soup, Italian salad dressing. Homogeneous mixtures have compositions that are uniform. Examples salt water, water.
A solution is a homogeneous mixture. Do not separate on standing, can not be filtered. Do not scatter light. Soluble capable of being dissolved. Solvent is the part of the solution that is doing the dissolving. Solute is the part of the solution that is being dissolved. Solvent Solute Solution
Alloy are solid solutions example brass made from zinc and copper, sterling silver = silver + copper.
Suspensions If the particles in a solvent are so large that they settle out unless the mixture is constantly stirred or agitated, the heterogeneous mixture is called a suspension. Muddy Water Italian Salad Dressing
Colloids Particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions form mixtures called colloids. Do not separate on standing. Can not be filtered. Tyndall effect is the scattering of light by a colloid.
Electrolyte is a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current. Nonelectrolyte is a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conducts electric current. Electrolytes break the bonds between ionic compounds and causes the solution to have ions (+ / -). Nonelctrolytes are covalent compounds that do not break down.
Chapter 13.2 The Solution Process Factors affecting the rate of dissolution (dissolving). 1. Increasing the surface area of the solute. 2. Agitating a solution. 3. Heating the solvent. When you make hot chocolate…the dry chocolate is in powder form, you add the powder in boiling water, and you stir it up…
Solubility of a substance is the amount of that substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specific temperature. Why is temp an important factor???? Increase Temperature increases solid and liquids solubility…But, decreases gases solubility… Solution equilibrium is the physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates.
Temperature vs. Solubility Chart for some solid solutes
Saturated are solutions with the maximum amount of solute dissolved in it. Unsaturated are solutions with less than the maximum amount dissolved in it. Supersaturated is a solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution contains. (Heated rock candy)
Immiscible are liquid solutes and solvent that are not soluble in each other. Example oil and water. Miscible liquids that dissolve freely in one another in any proportion. “Likes dissolve Likes” meaning that polar substances dissolve polar substances…or nonpolar and nonpolar.
Pressure has little effect on the solubilities of liquid or solids. However, increases in pressure increase gas solubilities in liquids. Henry’s law states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid. Effervescence is the rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which it is dissolved. That is why pop goes flat if you leave it uncapped…also, pop goes flat if it is not refrigerated that relates to the lower the temperature of the liquid the greater the gas solubility.