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Ch. 13 Solutions lWlWhat is a solution? –A–A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase. lWlWhat is a substance that is capable of.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 13 Solutions lWlWhat is a solution? –A–A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase. lWlWhat is a substance that is capable of."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ch. 13 Solutions lWlWhat is a solution? –A–A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase. lWlWhat is a substance that is capable of being dissolved? –S–Soluble

3 l What is the substance being dissolved called? –Solute l The substance that dissolves the solute is called what? –Solvent

4 lHlHomogenous mixture – can’t distinguish the difference in substances –E–Ex. Tomato juice, pop, vanilla ice cream lHlHeterogenous mixture – can distinguish the substances in the mixture. –E–Ex. Stew, salad, chocolate chip ice cream lVlVideo

5 l What is an electrolyte? –A substance that conducts electricity in a solution. –Ex. NaCl in water l A nonelectrolyte is a substance that doesn’t conduct electricity in a solution. –Ex. Sugar in water

6 l What is an alloy? –A solid solution with 2 or more metals mixed together. –Ex. Cu + Sn = Bronze –Ex. Cu + Zn = Brass –Ex. 50% Au + 50% Cu = 12 karat Au l Video Video

7 l Suspension – is a heterogeneous mixture of a solvent-like substance with particles that slowly settle out. –Ex. Muddy water (separate by a filter) –VideoVideo l Colloids – have particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions & suspension. Don’t settle. –Ex. Milk (Tyndall Effect) –VideoVideo

8 Factors that affect the rate of dissolving l 1. Heat the solvent l 2. Stir/mix the solution l 3. Crush/grind the solution l What is solubility? –The rate at which the solvent dissolves the solute at a given temp. –VideoVideo

9 Solutions l What is a saturated solution? –A solution that can’t take on any more solute and dissolve it. l What is a unsaturated solution? –A solution that can take on more solute. l What is supersaturated solution? –A solution with more solute than a saturated solution. (over saturated) l Video

10 Polar vs. Nonpolar l “Likes dissolve alike” l A polar molecule dissolves a polar molecule. –Ex. Water and salt (both polar) –Ex. Gasoline and benzene (non polar) –Ex. Water and gasoline don’t mix u Polar & nonpolar

11 l Immiscible are substances that is not soluble in each other. –Ex. Gas & water, oil & water l Miscible are substances that are soluble in each other. –Ex. NaCl & water, gas & benzene

12 lElEthanol & ether both have polar and nonpolar ends on their molecules, thus they are able to dissolve both polar and nonpolar substances. lTlThe solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid.  Henry’s Law

13 l Example of Henry’s Law –Gas is released in a carbonated pop bottle when opened because the pressure is less. l What is effervescence? –The rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which it was dissolved in.

14 l Table 13-4 Solubility vs. Temperature l Concentration of a solution is the measurement of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution. –Ex. Concentrated O.J. or Conc. HCl l A concentration of a solution can be diluted by adding H 2 O.

15 l Percent by mass is the number of grams of solute dissolved in 100 g of solution.  Sample Problem 13-1 –Ex. 10 g of NaOH in 90 g of H2O –10 g of NaOH / 10 g of NaOH + 90 g of H2O X 100% = 10% NaOH (by mass)

16 Molarity l Molarity is the number of moles of solute in 1 liter of solution. –To find the molarity of a solution you must know the molar mass of the solute. l Molarity (M) = # of moles of solute / # of liters of solution l Example Problem 13-2

17 Molality l Molality is the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. l Molality (m) = # of moles of solute / mass of solvent (kg) Sample Problem 13-4

18 lNlNonvolatile is a substance with little tendency to become a gas under the existing condition. –E–Ex. A lower freezing point & higher boiling point than water. lClColligative property is a property that depends on the # of solute particles, but is independent of their nature. –E–Ex. antifreeze


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