Presentation on theme: "PART II RULES OF PROPER USAGE AND BATTERY MAINTANANCE."— Presentation transcript:
PART II RULES OF PROPER USAGE AND BATTERY MAINTANANCE
Base hold downs Terminals ( meltings, mechanical defects ) Container mechanical damage Electrolyte effluent GENERAL EVALUATION OF BATTERY CONDITION
Charge level indicator condition: g green – battery charged b black – battery discharged ( charge it! ) w white – low level of electrolyte EVALUATION OF CHARGING STATE
EVALUATION OF CHARGING STATE Evaluation of electrolyte density 1,27g/cm3 ÷1,30 g/cm3 - completly charged 1,22g/cm3 ÷1,25 g/cm3 - partly charged (charge it! ) below 1,20 g/cm3 – discharged ( for immidiate charging ) Evaluation of ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE should be: - 12,60V ÷ 12,90V ( for 12V batteries) - 6,30V ÷ 6,45V ( for 6V batteries) Evaluation of voltage under short-time load To be ilustrated later on
CHARGING RATIO DEPENDING ON ELECTROLYTE DENSITY BY + 25 °C
20 HOUR CAPACITY Q 20 DEPENDING ON ELECTROLYTE TEMPERATURE COMPLETLY CHARGED BATTERY Density [g/cm 3 ]1,051,101,151,201,25 Temperature [ ° C] -5-9-15-27-60 Very low electrolyte density and low temperature could cause freezing of electrolyte and braking the battery container. In discharged battery electrolyte density goes down close to water state. Dangerous density around 1,11÷1,13 [g/cm 3]
Correction of electrolyte density depending on the temperature Example 1 TEMPERATURE : 25 ºC DENSITY : 1,250 Electrolyte Temperature: -5 ºC REDUCTION : 0,024 POINTS REVISED DENSITY : 1,226 Example 2 TEMPERATURE 25 ºC DENSITY : 1,235 Electrolyte Temperature : 35 ºC ADDITION : 0,008 POINTS REVISED DENSITY : 1,243
SYSTEM 6V – ( 6,9 ÷ 7,2 )V SYSTEM 12V – ( 13,9 ÷ 14,4 )V SYSTEM 24V – ( 28 ÷ 28,8 )V VEHICLE CHARGING VOLTAGE
1.Keep the battery in charged state Discharged battery left may cause sulfate of plates and fast damage. 2.Avoid electrolite freez-up ue to low temperature the electrolyte may get freezed (low electrolyte density) what results in a permanent damage of a battery (plates degradation) RULES OF PROPER BATTERY USAGE
3. Keep poles and surface of a battery clean Dirty, corroded poles and may cause sparking, which might result in a battery explosion. Dirt on a surface may speed up a self-discharge and worsen electrical parameters of a battery. 4. Never allow to deep self discharge of a battery. 5. Level of electrolyte refill with destilled water, not with acid. 6. Metal pieces of a battery cover with a thin layer of vaseline.
CUSTOMER COMPLAINT SOLVING AND ESTIMATING A CONDITON OF A BATTERY 1. FIRST STEP – check the formal data: Guarantee certificate Date of purchase by a client 2. SECOND STEP - Visual inspection: Box and lid (mechanical damages, leaks) Corks (mechanical damages) Poles (mechanical damages) 3. THIRD STEP - Inspection of electrical parameters of a battery: SEM – in a fully charge battery should be between 12,6-12,9V (for 12V batteries) and 6,30-6,45V (for 6V batteries) Voltage under short-time load (see printed attachement) Electrolyte density: - 1,27g/cm3 ÷1,30 g/cm3 - fully charged - 1,22g/cm3 ÷1,25 g/cm3 - partly charged - below 1,20 g/cm3 – discharged
Customer complaint solving procedure A. VISUAL INSPECTION 1. ANY LEAKS? YES – go to A-2 NO – go to B 2. ARE THERE ANY MECHANICAL DAMAGES CLOSE TO THE LEAK(S)?. YES – refuse a complaint NO – admit a complaint 3. IS THE LEVEL OF ACID EVEN? Yes – go to B NO– refuse a complait (battery overcharged) Properly working battery should have the same density in all cells. The density should be between (1,27 ÷1,30) g/cm 3 in 25 ° C If acid density is lower then 1,25 g/cm 3 the battery must be charged prior to electrical inspections Acid density in 25ºC (g/cm 3 )Condition of a batteryRecommended procedure 1,27 ÷ 1,30ChargedContinue with inspection 1,20 ÷ 1,25Partly chargedCharge the battery below 1,20DischargedCharge the battery immediately Attention: 100% discharge may be a reason for a complait refusal 1. Density in one cell lower YES – adimit a complait NO – go to B2 2. Is there a change in the color of electrolyte (dark brown, black), are there sings of electrolyte evaporation? YES - refuse a complait, damage caused by overcharging (check voltage in car electric system) NO – go to B4 B ELECTROLYTE DENSITY INPECTION 3. If electrolyte density is lower then 1,25 g/cm in all cells charge the battery. Is a density higher after recharge? YES – go to C NO – battery worn out, reject a complaint C HIGH CURRENT LOAD INSPECTION e.g. tester A 600 The examination should be done when the battery is fully charged. The voltage after high current load inspection should be compared with the results from the attached table. If the results of tests are the same or better it means that the battery works properly, in the opposite case the complait should be admitted.
Areometer with a pipette with a range 1,15 ÷ 1,30g/cm3 Direct current voltmeter to 30V, precission class better then 1 Tester for high current load inspection – we advice A-600 produced by LEWANDA Ammeter for possible check of current consumption of a car starter and for detection of short cuircut in car electric system. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS NECESSARY FOR PROPER BATTERY CONDITION ESTIMATION
Electric requirements for technical efficiency Estimation of lead-acid starter batteries used in a guarantee period information based on the results of tests done by ZAP SZNAJDER BATTERIEN S.A
Inspection of lead-acid batteries in a guarantee period VoltageCapacity Discharge current intensity by the high current load examination Minimal voltage by the high current load examination U C 20 150200255300400450 600 U VAhAAAAAAAV 1230 - 40 X 9,5 12 30 - 40 X 9,0 1241 - 50X9,6 1241 - 50 X 9,1 12 50 X 8,7 1251 - 60 X 9,7 12 51 - 60 X 9,3 12 51 - 60 X 8,7 1260 X 8,7 12 61 - 90 X 9,1 12 61 - 90 X 8,6 1291 - 130 X 8,9 12 91 - 130 X 8,2 12131 - 170 X 9,4 12 131 - 170 X 8,8 12171 - 210 X 9,5 12171 - 210 X 9,0 6 165 - 195 X 5,2 6165 - 195 X 5,0 6 165 - 195 X 4,6 6 165 - 195 X 4,3 Discharge current intensities and voltages given above are for tests which last no longer then 5 s.
SAFETY RULES BY WORKING WITH LEAD-ACID BATTERIES By working with batteries you should wear: - Acidproof dress - Rubber shoes/boots - Safety glasses - Gloves - Head coverage During battery charging don’t use any sparking devices, avoid open fire and glowing objects. - Avoid skin and eye contact with acid
SAFETY RULES BY WORKING WITH LEAD-ACID BATTERIES In case of contact of acid with the skin immediately flush with running water. Spilled electrolyte neutralize with sodium carbonate Battery should be charged in a special room with efficient ventilation. Used batteries should be stored in special containers, which guarantee that they are out of contact of other people. In Poland used batteries are sent to lead smelting plant for recycling.