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BATTERIES Heart of the electrical system. Functions Supply energy to electrical systems when the vehicle is not running Operating cranking system Store.

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Presentation on theme: "BATTERIES Heart of the electrical system. Functions Supply energy to electrical systems when the vehicle is not running Operating cranking system Store."— Presentation transcript:

1 BATTERIES Heart of the electrical system

2 Functions Supply energy to electrical systems when the vehicle is not running Operating cranking system Store energy Supply extra power when demand exceeds supply

3 THE GALVANIC REACTION Creates a charge differential by chemical reaction Creates a charge differential by chemical reaction Production of current when two dissimilar metals are placed in electrolyte Production of current when two dissimilar metals are placed in electrolyte Creates corrosion between dissimilar metals [steel & aluminum] Creates corrosion between dissimilar metals [steel & aluminum]

4 TYPES OF BATTERIES The term battery means a collection of galvanic cells connected The term battery means a collection of galvanic cells connected Current 12 volt batteries have 6 series- connected cells housed in a polypropylene case Current 12 volt batteries have 6 series- connected cells housed in a polypropylene case Each cell has positive and negative plates [anode & cathode] Each cell has positive and negative plates [anode & cathode]

5 The negative plates are connected to each other and so are the positive plates The negative plates are connected to each other and so are the positive plates Negative and positive plates are arranged alternately in each cell Negative and positive plates are arranged alternately in each cell Positive and negative plates are insulated from each other by electrically insulating separator plates Positive and negative plates are insulated from each other by electrically insulating separator plates This assembly is submerged in cell case full of electrolyte, 64% water 36% sulfuric acid This assembly is submerged in cell case full of electrolyte, 64% water 36% sulfuric acid

6 CELL CONNECTORS Cell elements are connected in series Cell elements are connected in series Positive strap of one cell is connected to negative strap of the adjacent cell Positive strap of one cell is connected to negative strap of the adjacent cell Connections are made through the cell partitions in the case or over the top of the partitions Connections are made through the cell partitions in the case or over the top of the partitions

7 PLATES Plates are cast from lead Plates are cast from lead Then are covered in a paste unique to the polarity of each plate Then are covered in a paste unique to the polarity of each plate Positive plate paste is made from lead oxide Positive plate paste is made from lead oxide Negative plate paste is sponge lead Negative plate paste is sponge lead Antimony is added to plate material to minimize corrosion Antimony is added to plate material to minimize corrosion

8 SEPERARTOR PLATES Prevent the battery grid plates from shorting out Prevent the battery grid plates from shorting out Thin glass fiber plates Thin glass fiber plates Allows electrolyte to flow easily through out cell while insulating the plates from each other Allows electrolyte to flow easily through out cell while insulating the plates from each other Plates sometimes shed the paste that was bonded to them at manufacturing commonly caused by vibration or deep cycling Plates sometimes shed the paste that was bonded to them at manufacturing commonly caused by vibration or deep cycling To prevent this from shorting out sediment chambers are used to collect this material To prevent this from shorting out sediment chambers are used to collect this material

9 ELECTROLYTE Battery acid [electrolyte] is typically 36% sulphuric acid and 64% water Battery acid [electrolyte] is typically 36% sulphuric acid and 64% water Electrolyte is measured by specific gravity Electrolyte is measured by specific gravity Specific gravity is the weight of a liquid or solid versus that of the same volume of water Specific gravity is the weight of a liquid or solid versus that of the same volume of water Specific gravity of water is Specific gravity of water is Specific gravity of electrolyte is at 80 degrees F Specific gravity of electrolyte is at 80 degrees F

10 When specific gravity is low the battery is said to be what?? In a state of discharge Battery could freeze in colder climates If specific gravity is too high the plate grids in the battery could be damaged Battery acid is very corrosive and will cause skin and eye damage, clothing, metal and painted surfaces damage

11 84 FACTOR Actual specific gravity of electrolyte in any cell in a battery relates directly to its voltage Actual specific gravity of electrolyte in any cell in a battery relates directly to its voltage Voltage can be calculated by adding.840 to the specific gravity reading Voltage can be calculated by adding.840 to the specific gravity reading =2.100 volts =2.100 volts

12 DISCHARGE CYCLE The positive plate reacts with the sulfuric acid, which results in an oxygen molecule being released into the electrolyte The positive plate reacts with the sulfuric acid, which results in an oxygen molecule being released into the electrolyte The negative plate reacts with the electrolyte to form lead sulfate The negative plate reacts with the electrolyte to form lead sulfate The action will occur until both the positive and negative plates are coated with lead sulfate The action will occur until both the positive and negative plates are coated with lead sulfate

13 CHARGE CYCLE The sulfate coatings on the plates are returned to reform electrolyte The sulfate coatings on the plates are returned to reform electrolyte Water molecules are reduced to hydrogen and oxygen Water molecules are reduced to hydrogen and oxygen The hydrogen combines the electrolyte to form sulfuric acid The hydrogen combines the electrolyte to form sulfuric acid The oxygen is drawn to the positive plates to reconstruct the lead peroxide coating The oxygen is drawn to the positive plates to reconstruct the lead peroxide coating

14 When a battery is in the charge cycle, gassing is caused by electrolysis. When a battery is in the charge cycle, gassing is caused by electrolysis. Gassing is the conversion of water in the electrolyte to hydrogen and oxygen gas Gassing is the conversion of water in the electrolyte to hydrogen and oxygen gas Forming an explosive combination!!! Forming an explosive combination!!!

15 DEEP CYCLE BATTERIES Similar in many respects to the standard battery Similar in many respects to the standard battery However plates are made much thicker to avoid? However plates are made much thicker to avoid? Buckling caused by the heat created internal resistance Buckling caused by the heat created internal resistance

16 SULFATION Condition occurs when battery becomes discharged to the point that the sulfate coating hardens on the plates and can no longer be converted Condition occurs when battery becomes discharged to the point that the sulfate coating hardens on the plates and can no longer be converted

17 MAINTENANCE-FREE BATTERIES Essentially the same construction as lead batteries Essentially the same construction as lead batteries Uses substances such as calcium, cadmium, and strontium instead of antimony on the plates Uses substances such as calcium, cadmium, and strontium instead of antimony on the plates These substances reduce gassing during the charging cycle These substances reduce gassing during the charging cycle Additionally an expansion or condensing chamber is used to contain the gassing Additionally an expansion or condensing chamber is used to contain the gassing

18 GELLED ELECTROLYTE BATTERIES Gel cell Gel cell Similar to standard electrolyte batteries Similar to standard electrolyte batteries Main difference of the gel cell is the electrolyte Main difference of the gel cell is the electrolyte The gel battery uses a special thixotropic electrolyte that when stirred or shaken liquefies but returns to the gelled state when left at rest The gel battery uses a special thixotropic electrolyte that when stirred or shaken liquefies but returns to the gelled state when left at rest

19 ADVANTAGES For this reason it never requires refilling For this reason it never requires refilling Spill-proof and leak-proof Spill-proof and leak-proof Vent no oxygen or hydrogen during charging Vent no oxygen or hydrogen during charging Vibration resistant Vibration resistant Double the service life of maintenance free battery Double the service life of maintenance free battery Can sustain deep cycling Can sustain deep cycling

20 DISADVANTAGES Weigh more Weigh more Will fail if overcharged Will fail if overcharged Requires special chargers [automatic, temperature-sensing, voltage-regulated] Requires special chargers [automatic, temperature-sensing, voltage-regulated] Vulnerable to abuse Vulnerable to abuse


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