Lithium-ion battery story 4 Bell Labs announced the discovery of the transistor in 1947. Start-ups like Fairchild and Intel beat giants like GE and RCA in electronics manufacturing. License for personal electronic devices sold to Ibuka and Morita for $25,000. gas tubes - to - solid state Beginning of electronics… …affects batteries Sony introduces a game-changing wireless device (pocket transistor) in 1957. Sony recognizes the importance of powering electronic circuits (rather than the importance of Moore’s law) and introduced the lithium-ion cell in 1990. Every handheld device in the world today has a lithium-ion battery. None of the batteries are made outside Asia. transistor radio – to – lithium battery
5 History of battery specific energy Lead Acid Ni-Cd Ni-MH Li-Ion ? Specific Energy (Wh/kg)
Coupling of safety and energy Safety problems begin with flammability and electrochemical instability of electrolyte Worse with more energy Cost to industry >$1B in recent years 6 Takeshita 2008 Small 1 Wh computer batteries are not perfectly safe. Of 22 US airline Li battery fires, 11 happened in last 3 years.
http://blogs.edmunds.com/greencaradvisor/2008/06/ plug-in-toyota-prius-catches-fire-explodes.html Safety of 5 kWh batteries Enough alkyl carbonate to annihilate a car. Li-ion batteries die quickly if operated at 60 o C and explode at 80 o C. Modified Prius
8 Replace liquid electrolyte by a solid Solid anode Conventional Li IonLi Polymer Flammable liquid electrolyteSolid state, no flammables Li Ion: <200 Wh/kgLi Polymer: ~250 Wh/kg Poor lifetime and capacity fadeStable polymer for best lifetime Cu Current Collector Porous Graphite Anode Composite Liquid Electrolyte Porous Cathode Composite Al Current Collector Solid Separator Polymer Cathode Composite Al Current Collector Activity began with California’s Zero Emission mandate in the 1990s
9 Dendrite growth during charging Cu Current Collector Porous Graphite Anode Composite Liquid Electrolyte Porous Cathode Composite Al Current Collector Solid anode Solid Separator Polymer Cathode Composite Al Current Collector Conventional Li IonLi Polymer Dendrite growth was a problem Make polymer hard to prevent deformation Modulus=10 9 Pa, Monroe and Newman, 2005
Previous polymer electrolytes Anion - polymer chain Li+ Ionic mobility is mediated by polymer chain motion. Fast polymer motion implies high conductivity and low modulus. Increasing modulus must decrease conductivity. 10 Conductivity Limitation of prior polymer electrolytes Stiffness Polyethylene oxide showed promise. Unfortunately batteries failed due to lithium dendrite growth.
Solid polymer electrolyte 11 Dendrites ~ m Nanostructured conductor ~ 10 nm LiTFSI salt r = [Li + ]/[EO] + - - +
1.CO 2 emission reduced by 0.75 GT per year. 2.1.6 TWh of distributed energy storage. 3.Potential solution to the renewable energy storage dilemma. Consequences of plug-in EV Basis: 100M EVs with 16 kWh batteries, 40 mi driving range
1.John Goodenough (U. Texas) proposes FePO 4 as a cathode for Li batteries in 1997 but poor transport properties prevented implementation. 2.Yet-Ming Chiang (MIT) shows that nanostructuring FePO 4 solves the transport problem and establishes A123 in 2002. 3.A123 goes public in September 2009. FePO 4 is the likely cathode for first generation plug-in EVs. A Recent Success Story
Need for fundamental understanding 15 kW battery can be charged in 5 min Kang and Cedar, Nature, 2009 Cedar claims that slow ion transport in FePO 4 is due to slow surface diffusion, based on simulations, but in the absence of direct experimental proof. This claim is strongly disputed by Goodenough et al. based on indirect arguments. Experimental measurements of bulk and interfacial transport would be useful. The most misleading conclusion in (1)…” 180 kW is needed to charge a 15 kWh battery in 5 minutes” …. one must remember that the internal resistance of the battery will be of the order of R=1/4 ohm so that the power dissipated … is typically what you need to heat a four-story building! Goodenough, et al. J. Power Sources, 2009 FePO 4
1.Designing new electrodes (NERSC). 2.Making model batteries with well-defined oxide nanoparticles (Foundry). 3.Tracking atoms and orbitals through charge-discharge cycles (NCEM, ALS). 4.Couple LBNL scientists who are not battery experts with battery experts. Fundamental study of the other charge carrier. Missing LBNL Battery Initiative Fundamental Studies on Battery Materials ($5M/year) This work is not consistent with the goals of the existing BATT program (supported by EERE). A new BES-supported program is needed for this work.
Future landscape http://www.power4georgians.com/images/CoalFiredPowerPlantDiagram02.png Emission at 1 place. CO 2 is concentrated. Easier to control, use, and legislate. Product We emit more than 1 molecule of CO 2 for every 10 -18 J of electricity we produce in a coal plant. Other alternative is to use clean energy (e.g. solar and wind).
A possible option
Not an option Car with cement factory Interactions between Battery Center and Carbon Dioxide and Renewable Energy Centers is essential.
1.Impact: 0.75 GT of CO 2 emission, 1.6 TWh of storage. 2.Major Obstacles: We may have arrived at the fundamental limit of today’s workhorse (Li-ion). Making next generation chemistries work is difficult to place on a Gandt chart. Lack of fundamental understanding of thermodynamics and transport impedes progress. Policies that reward lack an environmental footprint are essential as carbon-based energy will continue to be far more effective in terms of cost and energy density. 3.Current battery work at LBNL is conducted within the BATT program. 4.Connection between batteries, carbon capture, and renewable energy programs are natural. 5.LBNL current expertise is more at the basic end of spectrum. LBL/ANL appear to have synergistic capabilities to basic-to-manufacturing spectrum. 6.Industrial partners: Johnson Control, Dow Chemicals, A123 (BYD, Sanyo, LG Chem), IBM, Applied Materials. 7.Viable funding plan: A new $25 M ANL/LBL Collaboration. A new $5 M program housed at MSD on fundamental studies on battery materials. Summary