3BATT snapshot Lithium batteries for transportation Electrolyte: Liquid organic solventsPolymersGelsIonic liquidsCathode:Transition-metal oxidesSpinel-basedOlivine-basedAnode:Carbon-basedAlloys and intermetallicsOxidesLithium-metalLithium batteries for transportation
4Lithium-ion battery story Beginning of electronics…Bell Labs announced the discovery of the transistor in 1947.Start-ups like Fairchild and Intel beat giants like GE and RCA in electronics manufacturing.License for personal electronic devices sold to Ibuka and Morita for $25,000.gas tubes - to - solid stateSony introduces a game-changing wireless device (pocket transistor) in 1957.Sony recognizes the importance of powering electronic circuits (rather than the importance of Moore’s law) and introduced the lithium-ion cell in 1990.Every handheld device in the world today has a lithium-ion battery.None of the batteries are made outside Asia.…affects batteriestransistor radio – to – lithium battery4
5History of battery specific energy ?Li-IonSpecific Energy (Wh/kg)Lead AcidNi-CdNi-MH55
6Coupling of safety and energy Safety problems begin with flammability and electrochemical instability of electrolyteWorse with more energyCost to industry >$1B in recent yearsSmall 1 Wh computer batteries are not perfectly safe.Of 22 US airline Li battery fires, 11 happened in last 3 years.6Takeshita 20086
7Safety of 5 kWh batteries Enough alkyl carbonate to annihilate a car.Li-ion batteries die quickly if operated at 60 oC and explode at 80 oC.Modified Priusplug-in-toyota-prius-catches-fire-explodes.html
8Replace liquid electrolyte by a solid Conventional Li IonLi PolymerCu Current CollectorPorous Graphite Anode CompositeLiquid ElectrolytePorous Cathode CompositeAl Current CollectorSolid SeparatorPolymer Cathode CompositeSolid anodeFlammable liquid electrolyteSolid state, no flammablesLi Ion: <200 Wh/kgLi Polymer: ~250 Wh/kgPoor lifetime and capacity fadeStable polymer for best lifetimeActivity began with California’s Zero Emission mandate in the 1990s88
9Dendrite growth during charging Conventional Li IonLi PolymerDendrite growth was a problemCu Current CollectorPorous Graphite Anode CompositeSolid anodeLiquid ElectrolyteSolid SeparatorPorous Cathode CompositePolymer Cathode CompositeAl Current CollectorAl Current CollectorMake polymer hard to prevent deformationModulus=109 Pa, Monroe and Newman, 200599
10Previous polymer electrolytes Ionic mobility is mediated by polymer chain motion.Fast polymer motion implies high conductivity and low modulus.Increasing modulus must decrease conductivity.Anion-polymer chainLi+Polyethylene oxide showed promise.Unfortunately batteries failed due to lithium dendrite growth.StiffnessLimitation of prior polymer electrolytes10Conductivity10
12Consequences of plug-in EV Basis: 100M EVs with 16 kWh batteries, 40 mi driving rangeCO2 emission reduced by 0.75 GT per year.1.6 TWh of distributed energy storage.Potential solution to the renewable energy storage dilemma.
13A Recent Success StoryJohn Goodenough (U. Texas) proposes FePO4 as a cathode for Li batteries in 1997 but poor transport properties prevented implementation.Yet-Ming Chiang (MIT) shows that nanostructuring FePO4 solves the transport problem and establishes A123 in 2002.A123 goes public in September FePO4 is the likely cathode for first generation plug-in EVs.
14Need for fundamental understanding The most misleading conclusion in (1)…” 180 kW is needed to charge a 15 kWh battery in 5 minutes” …. one must remember that the internal resistance of the battery will be of the order of R=1/4 ohm so that the power dissipated … is typically what you need to heat a four-story building!FePO415 kW battery can be charged in 5 minKang and Cedar, Nature, 2009Goodenough, et al. J. Power Sources, 2009Cedar claims that slow ion transport in FePO4 is due to slow surface diffusion, based on simulations, but in the absence of direct experimental proof. This claim is strongly disputed by Goodenough et al. based on indirect arguments. Experimental measurements of bulk and interfacial transport would be useful.
15Missing LBNL Battery Initiative Fundamental Studies on Battery Materials ($5M/year)Designing new electrodes (NERSC).Making model batteries with well-defined oxide nanoparticles (Foundry).Tracking atoms and orbitals through charge-discharge cycles (NCEM, ALS).Couple LBNL scientists who are not battery experts with battery experts.Fundamental study of the other charge carrier.This work is not consistent with the goals of the existing BATT program (supported by EERE). A new BES-supported program is needed for this work.
16Future landscape Product We emit more than 1 molecule of CO2 for every J of electricity we produce in a coal plant.ProductEmission at 1 place.CO2 is concentrated.Easier to control, use, and legislate.Other alternative is to use clean energy (e.g. solar and wind).
18Not an option Car with cement factory Interactions between Battery Center and Carbon Dioxide and Renewable Energy Centers is essential.
19Summary Impact: 0.75 GT of CO2 emission, 1.6 TWh of storage. Major Obstacles: We may have arrived at the fundamental limit of today’s workhorse (Li-ion). Making next generation chemistries work is difficult to place on a Gandt chart. Lack of fundamental understanding of thermodynamics and transport impedes progress. Policies that reward lack an environmental footprint are essential as carbon-based energy will continue to be far more effective in terms of cost and energy density.Current battery work at LBNL is conducted within the BATT program.Connection between batteries, carbon capture, and renewable energy programs are natural.LBNL current expertise is more at the basic end of spectrum. LBL/ANL appear to have synergistic capabilities to basic-to-manufacturing spectrum.Industrial partners: Johnson Control, Dow Chemicals, A123 (BYD, Sanyo, LG Chem), IBM, Applied Materials.Viable funding plan: A new $25 M ANL/LBL Collaboration. A new $5 M program housed at MSD on fundamental studies on battery materials.