More than half of the world’s lithium can be found under the Bolivian desert. Spodumene (hard rock) The rock must be heated to 1100 degrees Celsius and then pulverized before the crystal are processed with acid to produce lithium. Mining process costs twice as much as lithium brines. Hectorite Clay New technique Mining is cheaper and easier.
Storage material Energy type MJ per kilogram MJ per litreDirect uses Gasoline Gasoline (petrol) Chemical47.234 Automotive engines Lithium-ion battery Electrochemic al 0.720.9-2.23 Laptop computers, mobile devices, some modern automotive engines Nickel-metal hydride battery Electrochemic al 0.2880.504-1.08 Portable electronic devices, flashlights Lead-acid battery Electrochemic al 0.1 Automotive engine ignition Energy Density Energy density is the capacity to store energy, affecting the range a vehicle can travel. Since Li-ion battery has much higher energy density than nickel-metal hydride and lead acid it requires less materials for the same impact. 1 kWh lead acid battery requires 14 liters and weighs 55lbs. 1 kWh Li-ion battery requires 2.5 liters and 14.8 lbs.
Lithium ion batteries contain lithium ions that move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge. Use an intercalated lithium compound for the electrode material for quick recharging. Cathode (positive electrode) is made of very pure lithium metal oxide. The more uniform the composition, the higher the performance and battery life. Anode (negative electrode) is made of graphite. The lithium ions travel from the positive electrode through the electrolyte to the negative electrode during charge. Discharge and Recharge
Advantages The temperature of Li-ion batteries can be self-controlled using computers that control thermal cooling and heating to allow maximum efficiency. Charge efficiency-97% Recharge rate-10x faster than Lead-acid battery Low maintenance Driving range is high. Longer life-up to 8 years for EV Disadvantages Production cost-$350 to $750 per kWh Chevy Volt is rated 16 kWh-Battery can cost $12000
Portable devices Cell phones Lap top computers Watches Etc. Automobiles Primarily for electric vehicles (EV)-Chevy Volt Hybrid vehicles primarily use Nickel Metal-Hydride Toyota Prius Military Thermal imagers Combat and technical radios Radio communication Respirators Robots Medical Implantable electronic devices Cardiac Pacemakers Cardiac Defibrillators Neurostimulators Drug infusion systems
http://www.digikey.com/us/en/techzone/power/resources/articles/a-designer-guide-lithium-battery- charging.html?WT.z_sm_link=Twitter_pwrtzart_0926 http://www.digikey.com/us/en/techzone/power/resources/articles/a-designer-guide-lithium-battery- charging.html?WT.z_sm_link=Twitter_pwrtzart_0926 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_density http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_density http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/moslive/article-1166387/In-search-Lithium-The-battle-3rd-element.html http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/moslive/article-1166387/In-search-Lithium-The-battle-3rd-element.html Battery Manufacturing for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles: Policy Issues,Bill Canis, March 22, 2011 http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/10/07/us-lithium-mines-idUSTRE6963X920101007 http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/10/07/us-lithium-mines-idUSTRE6963X920101007 Dundee Securities Corporation, Byron Capital Markets, U.S. Geological Survey, company websites. References