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COLEGIO DE POSTGRADUADOS INSTITUTO DE FITOSANIDAD.

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Presentation on theme: "COLEGIO DE POSTGRADUADOS INSTITUTO DE FITOSANIDAD."— Presentation transcript:

1 COLEGIO DE POSTGRADUADOS INSTITUTO DE FITOSANIDAD

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3 IN MÉXICO: - First report by Bruner in pepper crops (1967). - Impact: + Hidalgo State.- Abandon production. + Hidalgo State.- Abandon production. + Tecamachalco, Puebla.- Losses of 83%. + Tecamachalco, Puebla.- Losses of 83%. (Cid del Prado et al., 1997, Cristóbal, 2001). (Cid del Prado et al., 1997, Cristóbal, 2001). - Wide host range. - High population density in the field. - Resistant to adverse condition. - Produce severe galls in the roots. Nacobbus aberrans

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5 N. aberrans distribution in Mexico Cid del Prado et al. (1991).

6 N. aberrans STUDIES IN MEXICO

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8 FEMALE MALE N. aberrans

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10 N. dorsalis FEMALE MALE

11 (Aparicio, et al., 1989; Cid del Prado, 1985; Cid del Prado and Manzanilla, 1992; Cid del Prado et al., 1993; Cid del Prado et al., 1997; Carrillo, 1988; Cruz et al., 1987, García-Camargo and Trejo, 1995; Santacruz and Marbán, 1983).

12 TOMATO ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. )

13 CHILI PEPPER ( Capsicum annuum L. )

14 BEANS ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. )

15 Spinacea oleracea L. Physalis ixocarpa L. Beta vulgaris L. cv. cicla Amaranthus cruentus L.

16 Chenopodium murale Portulaca oleracea Amaranthus hybridus Datura stramonium

17 - Complete life cycle (40-45 days) and maximum abundances of each stage in the roots. ( Cid del Prado et al., 1995b; Cid del Prado et al., 1997a ). - Maximum abundances in tomato crops: 1) J2 at 6, 11, 15 and 22 weeks after transplanting. 2) J3 at 4, 8 and 16 weeks after transplanting. - Adult females are evident in the second and third week after transplanting. Abundances may reach 20 females/g root (16 th week). ( Cid del Prado et al., 1997 ). ( Cid del Prado et al., 1997 ).

18 - In tomato crops under field conditions, 3 generations: 1 st days after transplanting (d.a.t.). 2 nd d.a.t. 3 rd. More that 100 d.a.t. ( Cristóbal, 2001 ). - Most favorable conditions for N. aberrans development include sand to sandy-loam soils, temperature range between 15 and 23°C and 5 and 19% soil moisture. ( Cruz et al., 1987 )

19 4 plots with 5000 EGGS WITH MASS 4 plots with 5000 EGGS WITHOUT MASS 4 plots with 5000 J2 J3 and J4 4 plots with 500g fragmented ROOTS 400g each month (12 months) Greenhouse: Transplanted with tomato cv. Rio Grande (2 plants/treatment), evaluated 45 days later. Field: 10 kg sterilized soil plots. Before treatment, inoculum viability is tested in the greenhouse 4 PLOTS WITHOUT NEMATODES NEMATODES

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21 - N. aberrans J3 and J4 survive under field conditions without a host for one year. - J3 and J4, possibly in anhydrobiotic state, are the primary inoculum infecting susceptible hosts the next year. - Survival of J3 and J4 increases if they are in root fragments. - Eggs and J2 do not survive without a host or under adverse conditions. (Cristóbal, 2001).

22 Without nematodesWith nematodes RootsFoliage

23 Without nematodesWith nematodes RootsFoliage

24 Without nematodesWith nematodes RootsFoliage

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26  Corn and barley straw, 1973).  Association and/or incorporation of Tagetes (Gómez et al., 1991; Zavaleta-Mejía and Ochoa, 1992).  Crucifer residues with nematicide activity (Zavaleta-Mejía and Rojas, 1988).  Castor bean and cabbage residues applied at different concentrations and at different dates before the transplanting (Franco et al., 2002).

27 Lycopersicon esculentum-Nacobbus aberrans Release of nematicidal substances and/or reception inhibitors. Increase antagonist microorganism diversity. Modification of physical properties of soil. Release nutrients (short-term). CABBAGE / CASTOR BEAN - Fewer galls. - Phytotoxicity (Cabbage). - Fewer galls. - Biomass increase (Cabbage) 1. INCREASE IN THE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF FOLIAGE 2. REDUCE NUTRIENT UNBALANCE INDEX (IDN) LOWER LEVELS OF SOIL NUTRIENTS

28 - FEWER GALLS. - INCREASE OF BIOMASS. HIGHER YIELD (Total and Commercial). 1. GREATER QUANTITY OF NUTRIENTS 2. LOWER IDN 1. FEWER INDIVIDUALS PER STAGE (SOIL AND ROOTS) Lycopersicon esculentum-Nacobbus aberrans Release of nematicidal substances and/or reception inhibitors. Increase antagonist microorganism diversity. Modification of physical properties of soil. Release nutrients (short-term).

29 Samplings in Mexico, Morelos, Puebla and Tlaxcala States (fields naturally infested with N. aberrans) Isolates of nematophagous fungi: Phoma, Acremonium, Catenophora and Pochonia chlamydosporia (identified by PCR) Mexican isolations of P. chlamydosporia: SMB3A, SC1, SMB3, SM4 and MHCH. ( Flores-Camacho, 2003 ). ( Flores-Camacho, 2003 ). LAB TESTING ( Potential as biological control agents ) Chlamydospores - production and viability (Wheat-quartz sand and preboiled rice) Rhizosphere colonization N. aberrans eggs - percent parasitized

30 ROOT COLONIZATION ALL THE ISOLATES COLONIZED 100% OF ROOT FRAGMENTS CHLAMYDOSPORE - PRODUCTION AND VIABILITY - IN WHEAT-QUARTZ SAND: SMB3A (MOST PROLIFIC ISOLATE) - IN PREBOILED RICE: SM4 (MOST PROLIFIC ISOLATE) CHLAMYDOSPORES VIABILITY: SMB3A (93.3%)

31 EGG PARASITISM N. aberrans (Montecillo) N. aberrans (Tecamachalco) N. aberrans (Zacatecas)

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33 - Of 90 varieties and lines of Capsicum spp., only Capsicum pendulum = C. baccatum was considered resistant. ( Bruner de Magar, 1967 ). ( Bruner de Magar, 1967 ). - Later studies demonstrated that C. baccatum was susceptible- tolerant to N. aberrans, but not resistant. ( Castillo and Marbán-Mendoza, 1984 ). ( Castillo and Marbán-Mendoza, 1984 ). - All tomato varieties (wild, criollas, hybrid) tested in the greenhouse (60) and in the field (81) were susceptible to N. aberrans. - Some varieties tested in the greenhouse were tolerant under field conditions. ( Zamudio, 1987 ). ( Zamudio, 1987 ).

34 Flor de Mayo Criollo N. aberrans (PUEBLA) (ZACATECAS) 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 J 2 /plant The population from Puebla did not establish or reproduce, but the population from Zacatecas infected bean crops (from 100 J 2 ) (Hernández, 2001). (Hernández, 2001).

35 Improved varieties: Bayo Mecentral, Flor de Mayo M-38, Bayo INIFAP,Black Puebla and Río Grande. Criollas varieties: Yelow Calpan, Black Querétaro, Black San Luís, Flor de Junio Criollo and Flor de Mayo Criollo.

36 SUSCEPTIBLE VARIETIES Negro Puebla Flor de Mayo Criollo MORE... Black Querétaro Flor de Junio Criollo Bayo INIFAP

37 CRIOLLAS IMPROVED IMPROVED Negro San Luis Amarillo Calpan Bayo Mecentral Rio Grande RESISTANT VARIETIES

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39 CONTROL Crop age= 30 days after transplanting MANAGEMENT Basamid (Dazomet) 35 g/m 2 Chicken manure 10 ton/ha INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR N. aberrans SPRING-SUMMER 1997

40 Total tomato production under different N. aberrans control strategies INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR N. aberrans

41 CONTROL No nematicide No fertilization REGIONAL PRACTICES Carbofuran (1L ha -1 ) 15, 30 and 60 dpt Fertilization: INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT Etoprofos gel 68% (7 kg ha -1 ) at transplant and 20 dpt Optimum fertilization: Chicken manure (10 tonha -1 ): 30 dpt SPRING-SUMMER 2001 Saladette tomato cv. Río Grande

42 Testigo Regional Manejo Integrado Testigo Absoluto Integrated Management Regional Practices Control

43 Testigo RegionalManejo IntegradoTestigo Absoluto Integrated Management Regional Practices Control Treatments Total Yield Commercial Yield Yield (kg/15 plants)

44 WHAT DO WE NEED TO DO? 1.EXPLORE DIFFERENT STRATEGIES FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROLOF N. aberrans (plant extracts, green manures, compost, antagonists, etc.). 1.EXPLORE DIFFERENT STRATEGIES FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF N. aberrans (plant extracts, green manures, compost, antagonists, etc.). 2. IMPROVE AND VALIDATE THE STUDIES WITH MEXICAN ISOLATES OF NEMATOPHAGOUS FUNGI (large scale production and infectivity tests). 3. GREATER USE OF VARIETIES RESISTANT TO MEXICAN POPULATIONS OF N. aberrans (tomato, chili pepper, bean). 4. CONTINUE THE ESTABLISHMENT AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF N. aberrans. 5. PROMOTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS FOR N. aberrans AMONG FARMERS AND EXTENSION PERSONNEL. 6. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE POPULATIONS.

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