2IntroductionCultivating rice and fish together has been centuries old tradition in some parts of southeast Asia.this beneficial cultivation system was gradually abandoned due to population pressures, decreasing stocks of wild fish and the "Green Revolution" which emphasized high-input monoculture using high-yield rice varieties, pesticides, and herbicides
3During the 1980s and early 1990s, rice-fish culture as managed cultivation systems experienced a revivalRice-fish culture can actually increase rice yields (up to 10% in some cases) while providing farmers with an important source of protein and extra income. Implementation is relatively inexpensive and low-risk.Fish culture in paddy “legowo” method
4Fish culture in paddy “legowo” method The advantages of this method are :Some alleys allow many border rows and as it is well known that the border rows always better than others.Some alleys allow some opened space which can be used for raising fish.It’s easier to control weeds, pest and do fertilizing more effective because fertilizer can be concentrated just only in between two row of rice plants.
5Potential advantages of fish-rice culture : Additional food and income in the form of fish.Control of mollusks and insects which are harmful to rice.Reduced risk of crop failure resulting from integration of rice and fish.Continued flooding of the paddy and rooting activity of fish help control weeds.Fish stir up soil nutrients making them more available for rice. This increases rice production.
6Potential disadvantages of rice-fish culture : Pesticide use must be restricted.Rice-fish culture may require more water than rice culture alone.Trenches must be dug about 40 to 50 cm below the paddy bottom. In many places, this makes drainage difficult. Rice yield per area is usually reduced because paddy area used for trenches is not planted with rice.Fish produced with the system are often small and total production is lower than what could be produced in a pond of equal size.Because rice production is seasonal, fish are harvested at the same time by every farmer and marketing may be a problem. Consequently, rice-fish culture may be more appropriate for small-scale paddies where fish are consumed by the producing family.Because rice paddies may be irrigated from a common water supply, it is difficult to ensure that water used to supply the paddy will be pesticide-free. This may make rice-fish culture impractical.Substantial investment in fish and rice paddy modification increases risk to farmers.Requires more labor than rice culture alone.
7Land preparationstrong and impervious bunds - the height of the dry bund should be at least 25 cm, but a height of 60 cm is recommendedIt is useful to have trenches and sumps to be used as fish refuges in rice fish culture plots.The width of the trench should take into consideration the size of the fish harvested - the width usually varies between 50 and 180 cm and the depth from 30 to 90 cm.Sumps, or larger pits, are usually provided in the plot, for fish to take refuge in times of need and also to facilitate harvest
9Fish managementManagement activities for fish culture in rice paddies include stocking, fertilization, feeding, water quality control, harvesting, and, restocking. Practices used depend on location, fish species, and numbers of fish stocked
10Rice-Gouramy Fish Culture at Fresh water fish research center. In this research used 12 field plots, each m square size. Each plot was equipped with a field trenches cross in the middle with 80 cm width and 40 cm depth.Rice seedlings was transplanted one week before stocked fish and one day before transplanting, fertilization was done. Fertilizer were 2 ton manure / hectare; urea 100 kg / hectare ; TSP 150 Kg / hectare and KCl 50kg / hectare. Gouramy fish was used in this research with average weight of gram and average length of 7.00 cm.There were three treatment with three replication : stocking density 250 /plot ; 500/plot and 1000/plot. (Treatment A;B;C)Sampling was done after a month (before weeding) by weighing total fish, and next sampling was done a month later (after weeding).
11Result : First 30 days (period I / before weeding) TreatmentSurvival/viability (%)Individual daily growth (g/ day)A85.330.2558B77.860.1604C83.330.1160
12Result : Second 30 days (period I I/ after weeding) TreatmentSurvival/viability (%)Individual daily growth (g/ day)A70.130.1785B70.460.0299C83.330.0256
13Rice fish culture Practice at Farmer Farmers in Cianjur, in general, cultivate rice-fish culture in three ways. First, stocking fish when land preparation is done while rice seedlings is not ready or still in the nursery. Second way is stocking fish incorporate with paddy. Third way is stocking fish after plating paddy-paddy which water is still available for 45 days (definitely not enough for planting paddy).
14For the first and second ways the farmers usually stock fish (fry size = 1-3 cm) in the paddy field for days, and harvest fingerling size (3-5 cm). For the third way, farmers stock fish (fry size = 1-3 cm) in paddy field for about 45 days and harvest 5-8 cm size. There are two kind of fish usually cultured in this area : Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and Tilapia.
15Stocking fish in paddy field before transplanting Inputs (per 1000 m square)Volume x Price (USD)Total (USD)1Making trench (labor)1 person x 1.421.422Fish (1-3 cm size)1 liter x 2.52.503Feed :rice bran20 Kg x 0.132.604Grand total inputs cost6.425Output : 20 kg (3-5 cm size)20 x 1.6733.346Profit27.7527.75 USD = % of total cost paddy production
16Stocking fish incorporate with paddy Inputs (per 1000 m square)Volume x Price (USD)Total ( USD)1Making trench (labor)1 person x 1.421.422Fish (1-3 cm size)0.5 liter x 2.501.253Feed :rice bran10 Kg x 0.131.34Grand total inputs cost3.925Output : 20 kg (3-5 cm size)10 x 1.6716.76Profit12.7512.75 USD = % of total cost paddy production
17Stocking fish after paddy-paddy planting Inputs (per 1000 m square)Volume x Price (USD)Total (USD)1Making trench (labor)2 person x 1.422.842Fish (1-3 cm size)1 liter x 2.502.503Feed :rice branArtificial feed50 Kg x 0.1320 Kg x 0.56.2510.004Grand total inputs cost21.595Output : 20 kg (3-5 cm size)40 x50.006Profit28.42
18Recommendation for Applying Asian Experiences in Africa 1. Establish area that match to ideal condition for rice fish culture2. Establish extension approaches3. Fish Supply and Market Guarantee
19Establish area that match to ideal condition for rice fish culture Rainfall and water supplyWater temperature and dissolved oxygen.Fertility and richness of plankton and other fish food organismsPolluting effects of chemicals
20Establish extension approaches Refers to successful Integrated Pest Management Program in Indonesia :Make National ProgramMake training program : National level to farmer group level.
21SET UP TRAINING PROGRAM National Level : Training of Field leader I (FL-I) and Field Leader II (FL-II)Establish Field Training Facilities In each provinceTraining of Pest Observer ( one full paddy season)Field school : training for farmers. One pest observer trained 4 farmer groups consist of 25 member respectively.
22Fish Supply and Market Guarantee To support rice fish culture program, continuity of fish supply ( in any size needed : larva , fry, fingerling ) is absolutely a must.If it is for commercial goal, fish market must be guaranteed too.