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1 Introduction to Surgical INSTRUMENTATION ST230 Concorde Career College.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Introduction to Surgical INSTRUMENTATION ST230 Concorde Career College."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Introduction to Surgical INSTRUMENTATION ST230 Concorde Career College

2 2 Objectives Discuss the relationship between instrumentation, equipment, and supplies and quality patient care in the OR Identify basic instruments by type, function, classification, and name



5 5 Manufacturing Most are stainless steel – Carbon, chromium, iron, alloys High carbon makes instruments harder and less likely to wear Chromium increases resistance to corrosion

6 6 Manufacturing Three types of finishing – Highly polished = increased resistance to corrosion, but increases glare from OR lights – Satin (dull) = less reflective, reduces glare – Ebonized = non-reflective, eliminates glare Used for laser procedures because it prevents reflection of laser beam


8 8 CUTTING/DISSECTING One or more sharp edges – Used for incision, sharp dissection, or excision of tissue – Include knives, scalpels, scissors, and bone cutting instruments – osteotomes, curettes, chisels, gouges, and rongeurs – May be classified as cutting instruments – saws, drills, biopsy punches, adenotomes, and dermatomes – -tome – refers to a cutting instrument

9 9 CUTTING/DISSECTING The term knife and scalpel are interchangeable although typically scalpels have a detachable disposable blade and non- disposable handle and knives refers to non- disposable handle and blade such as an amputation knife Scalpels handles sizes include #3, #4, #7, and #9; Beaver blade handle

10 10 CUTTING/DISSECTING Disposable blades are made from carbon steel Blades should be loaded and removed with an instrument such as a needle holder #10, #11, #12, #12B, #15, #15C, #20, #21, #22, #23, #25 Blades fit specific handles - #10, #11, #12, #12B, #15, #15C blades fit #3, #7, #9 handles

11 11 CUTTING/DISSECTING #20, #21, #22, #23, #25 blades fit on a #4 knife handle Any size Beaver blade will fit on a Beaver blade handle #10 blades are the most frequently used blades and should be loaded on a #3 knife handle; do not load #10’s on a #7 knife handle #11, #12, #15 blades are loaded on a #7 knife handle, although a #15 blade is used on a #3 knife handle for small skin incisions

12 12 CUTTING/DISSECTING Blades become dull very quickly. 2 or 3 cuts usually dulls the blade The blades have to be changed as needed For safety reasons, if the blade has been changed, the surgeon should be informed that it is a new blade when passing it

13 13 CUTTING/DISSECTING Scissors – Tissue scissors, suture scissors, wire scissors, or bandage scissors – Tissue scissors should only be used to cut tissue because others materials will dull them; an exception would be CV surgeons, they use Metz to cut the small sutures – Wire scissors are used to cut wire – Bandage and straight mayo scissors can be used on dressings

14 14 Cutting and Dissecting

15 15 CUTTING/DISSECTING In addition to cutting tissue (sharp dissection), scissors are also used to spread and open tissue planes (dull dissection) Curved mayo scissors are used on heavy tissue Metz are used on medium to fine tissue Iris, tenotomy, and Potts-smith scissors are used on delicate tissues

16 16 CUTTING/DISSECTING Examples of specialized scissors – Potts-smith – ducts, veins, or arteries – Cushing - dura – Jorgenson – hysterectomy – Strabismus, Iris, corneal scissors – eyes Scissors have straight and curved blades and sharp or dull tips

17 17 GRASPING/HOLDING Used to grasp or hold tissue for counter traction or manipulation Forceps – aka pickups or thumb forceps Forceps are usually used in the non-dominate hand Forceps have either teeth, serrations or smooth; Vary in length Adson – smooth, with teeth, or Brown tips; primarily used for skin closure Ferris-Smith – used for heavy tissue Brown, Russian, Gerald, Cushing, bayonet, rat tooth Allis, Babcock, Kocher - clamps Bone-holding clamps – ex; Lane, Kern, Lowen, Lewin

18 18 Grasping/holding Designed to manipulate tissue to facilitate dissection or suturing or to reduce and stabilize fractured bone during internal fixation Lowman – Turkey claw Lane

19 19 CLAMPING/OCCLUDING Designed to occlude or restrict tissue Have ringed handles with interlocking ratchets Straight or curved, long or short, pointed or round Vascular clamps have atraumatic serrations that are vertical Bulldog clamps are small spring loaded for temporary occlusion – vascular Hemostats are used to occlude bleeders until they can be ligated

20 20 Clamping and Occluding

21 21 RETRACTING/VIEWING Designed for the exposure of the operative site May be hand-held or self-retaining Many sizes and designs; sharp or dull tips Some retractors are malleable Many hand-held are double-ended with a variation on each end and usually are mostly used two at a time

22 22 RETRACTING/VIEWING Most commonly used hand-held retractors – – small wounds - Richardson, Army/Navy, Senn, Ragnell, A variety of rakes, skin hooks; – large wounds – Deaver, Ribbon (malleable), Harrington Most common self-retaining retractors – small wounds – Gelpie, Weitlaner – large wounds – Balfour, Bookwalter, O’Sullivan-O’Conner Many have a variety of attachments Some large self-retaining retractors are attached to the OR table for stabilization

23 23 RETRACTING/VIEWING Viewing instruments are more specialized Ear speculum; nasal speculum; vaginal weighted speculum – vaginal retractors Endoscopes are also considered viewing instruments

24 24 PROBING Malleable, wire-like instruments that are used for exploration of tubular structures – Fistula probes, lacrimal duct probes, biliary probe, rectal probes

25 25 DILATING Used to gradually dilate a duct or an orifice to allow introduction of a larger instrument or open a stricture Used from the smallest to largest – May require lubrication Can be single or double ended – CBD, lacrimal duct, tracheal, urethral, cervical

26 26 SUTURING Used to hold a curved needle – needle holders, needle drivers Choosing an appropriately-sized needle holder depends on the size of the needle – the length depends on the depth – can be curved for deep tissue Vary by specialty – General, ophthalmic, plastic, GYN, vascular, microscopic

27 27 Suctioning Poole Suction Yankauer Suction

28 28 SUCTIONING For the removal of blood and bodily fluids Disposable and non-disposable Vary by specialty – Abdominal, ear, neurosurgery, nasal, rectal Some suction devices have the ability to coagulate Many different lengths for trachea, esophageal, larynx – these are not typically used in sterile fashion

29 29 MICROINSTRUMENTATION Used for working under the microscope Small and delicate Must be handled with extra care and precision

30 30 Introduction to Surgical INSTRUMENTATION ST230 Concorde Career College

31 31 Objectives Describe different types of specialty sets Describe types of instruments included in the sets Describe procedures performed using specialty sets

32 32 Instrument Sets Assembled into sets for specific specialties Assembled for specific procedures – Laparotomy – Craniotomy – Cardiovascular

33 33 Specialty Sets May contain a count sheet Names of instruments may vary by manufacturer, locality, facility, or surgeon Many procedures require more than one set

34 34 Laparotomy Sets Abdominal procedures May need additional sets for certain procedures (gallbladder, rectal, etc) Can be major or minor

35 Major Laparotomy Set

36 36 OB/Gyn D&C Abdominal hysterectomy Vaginal hysterectomy Laparoscopic procedures C-section

37 Abdominal Hysterectomy Set

38 D&C Set

39 39 ENT Myringotomy Tympanoplasty Tonsils Tracheotomy Sinuses

40 ENT Instruments

41 41 Plastics Lipo Minor plastic Major plastic Breast Augmentation

42 Plastic Instrument Tray

43 43 GU Kidney procedures may need a major set, basic vascular set, kidney set, long instrument set and a thoracotomy set Prostate procedures may require several sets as well

44 What are these used for?

45 45 Ortho Internal fixation sets External fixation sets Minor ortho Major ortho Total joints IM rods Hands

46 Synthes ORIF Instruments

47 47 Cardiac sets CABG- vein harvesting instrumentation, cannulization for bypass, diethrich scissors, sternal saw, IMA retractors, surgeon specific instrumentation

48 48 Thoracic sets Used for procedures of the thorax Includes instruments to shear and remove ribs Thoracoscopy sets differ from thoracotomy sets

49 49 Peripheral vascular Instruments for exposure and repair of vessels Aneurysms, Fem-pops, A-V fistulas

50 50 Neuro Exposure and repair of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves Crani sets, lami sets, thrasphenoidal hypophysectomy sets Cloward retractors

51 Craniotomy Instruments

52 52 Introduction to Surgical INSTRUMENTATION ST230 Concorde Career College

53 Objectives Discuss the various uses for basic surgical instrumentation Identify some commonly-used instruments

54 54 Farris Smith VERY traumatic Uses- closure of fascia Nickname- Big Ugly, Mother-in-Law


56 56 HARRINGTON RET Blunt edges Uses- retracting the liver

57 57 GREEN RET Uses – thyroid ret

58 58 LAHEY RET Uses – thyroid ret

59 59 SENN RAKE RET Mostly used x 2 Sharp and dull Uses- small incisions such as hands

60 60 POTTS-SMITH SCISSORS Vascular Billary tract explorations Extending incisions

61 61 FREER ELEVATOR Uses – removing periosteum from bone

62 62 METZENBAUM SCISSORS Uses – for fine or delicate dissection The most commonly used scissors DO NOT USE OR PASS FOR CUTTING SUTURE

63 63 FRAZIER SUCTION TIP Uses – suctioning in small places

64 64 POOLE SUCTION Uses – suctioning irrigation Changed on and off for laparotomies



67 67 STRIAGHT MAYO SCISSORS Uses- cutting suture Called “Suture scissors”

68 68 CURVED MAYO SCISSORS Uses- cutting heavy tissue such as muscle, fascia, uterus

69 69 OSHNER/KOCHER Traumatic Uses- heavy tissue such as fascia or uterus

70 70 Hemostats Crile - Big bites of tissue such as mesentery Kelly – Clamping of superficial vessels

71 71 BABCOCK Atraumatic Uses – clamping delicate tissue such as bowel, uterine tubes

72 72 ALLIS Uses – medium tough tissue such as skin, mucusmembranous tissue

73 73 Adson Tissue Forceps Uses – skin, specialty surgery

74 74 BODY-WALL RET Uses – retracting the abdominal wall


76 Passing Instruments Passing the scalpel

77 Passing Instruments Passing the scissors

78 Passing Instruments Passing the tissue forceps

79 Passing Instruments Passing the hemostat

80 Passing Instruments Hand signal for suture

81 Passing Instruments Passing the suture

82 82 Instrument Care Handled with great care during all phases – Prevents injury – Extends the life of the instrument – Allows instrument to perform correctly

83 83 Instrument Sets Assembled into sets for specific specialties Assembled into sets for physician preference (ie: Dr. Smith tubal set) Assembled for specific procedures – Laparotomy – Craniotomy – Cardiovascular

84 84 Instrument Sets Names vary from one facility to another – Major tray versus laparotomy tray – Laparoscopy tray versus Pelviscopy tray – Ortho tray versus Bone tray

85 Instrumentation Instrument List/Count Sheet

86 Instrumentation Preference Card

87 Instrumentation Instrument Care and Handling The Instrument Cycle – Preoperative Phase – Intraoperative Phase – Postoperative Phase

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