Presentation on theme: "Forum on International Social Policy: Helsinki,17 th March 2010 Social Policy in a Globalizing World: Voices From Tanzania."— Presentation transcript:
Forum on International Social Policy: Helsinki,17 th March 2010 Social Policy in a Globalizing World: Voices From Tanzania
TANZANIA IN 2010 AND BEYOND: RURAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Paper presented by Josiah Severre; Executive Director, Green Arusha Society, Tanzania and TACOSODE EXCO Member
COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION 1.INTRODUCTION. Environmental issue is a global crisis as one of the basic human rights is to live in a safe environments. In the past few decades, environmental conservation became an issue all over the world as the population growth is highly increasing with time. Such an increment is accelerating human pressure on natural resources exploitation and utilization through daily activities and consumption as well as technological innovations.
Introduction Cont…. Deforestation in Tanzania, as the case may be, became more environmental issue as the forests provide a wide range of human potentials for daily livelihood including timber for furniture and multi-construtional purposes, fuel wood, traditional medicines (herbs), beeswax, animal homes, watershed protection, climate stabilalization, animal fodder, biological diversity, soil conservation, etc..
….Introduction continues The fast population growth in Tanzania has been alarmingly increasing preassure of human hands into natural forests without effective replacemet, thus creating a big gap between wood consumption and production; that means, the natural forests are diminishing at a rate of 10% per year; unlike in the developed countries having an icrement of about 2.7 % per year. (FAO,report 1997)
2. FORESTRY SITUATION IN TANZANIA Tanzania had about 38.8 million hactares of forests and woodland accounting about 39% of the total land area of the country. Out of that, 13 million hactares are gazetted as forest reserves and 29% of the forest are categorized as watershed protection areas. The rest 71% of the forests are used as production forests as the source of timber, traditional medicines, honey, fruits and nuts, fuel wood etc. In Tanzania, it is estimated that more than 90% of local people living in urban and rural communities use wood for domestic consumption as a source of energy and accounts for 91% of all energy consumption; the rest 9% are electricity, biogas, natural gas, and kerosene which are relatively expensive for most Tanzanians to afford and have access to.
3. COMMUNITY FORESTRY IN TANZANIA As it has been previously discussed in the past section about forets situation in the country, Tanzania now is experiensing a serious impact of deforestation, that, some of its areas are turning into deserts. Moreover, there is an increase of global warming as there is no proper absorption of poisonous gases through carbon emissions by chemical industries, vehicles and other human activities. Forests have been descriminately cleared off without serious replacements that has created a big gap between forests production and consumption.
… community forestry in Tanzania continues… Tanzania loses about 92,000 ha of its forests per year and this destruction has mainly been caused by human activities including extensive and mechanised agriculture, fuel wood collection, illegal charcoal burning, human settlement expansion, livestock overgrazing, miscellaneous fires and other much more activities.
The consequences of such destructions are the barren lands exposed to soil erosion, soil infertility, diminishing of watershed areas, loss of biodiversity, shortadge of fuel wood, timber etc. This kind of mishandling of natural resources is one of the factors contributed to poverty crisis in the country in the sense that investing on the poor environments results into poor production hence poverty visious as well as global warmimng.
…community forestry in Tanzania continues… Afforestation in Tanzania dates back to colonial time when most of forest plantations were established to provide raw materials for colonial wood industries. Tree planting by then was regarded as government's activity and not citizens, that, community participation was through provision of labour without prior involvement from planning process. The laws were then established to protect the forests, restricted access to the resources by local people unless permitted by the government. This state of affair, brought about the negative attitudes of the local people towards the natural resources management, thus, in turn, they had a feeling that tree planting and management belong to the government.
…community forestry in Tanzania continues… Community Forestry in Tanzania emerged in 1972 when the governmet started to raise awareness to the local communities and involve them in tree planting, but still it was not much successful because there was no proper involvement of the local communities from planning stage, there was some sort of top-down approach; tree nurseries were centralized and tree seedlings were distributed to the local people to be planted without considering their priorities, no followups made while tree planting was of less priority to the local people. As a result, the survival % was poor because no one was taking care of the planted trees. 'WHO OWNS THE TREES?
…community forestry in Tanzania continues… Environmental awareness in Tanzania is currently an issue where the government proposes a rational and holistic approach to the sustainability and development of forests in Tanzania through involvement of the local communities from the grassroot level. Many steps have been taken by the government to involve local communities to close the existing wood consumption gap. The 'MISITU NI UHAI' (Forests are life) campaign was launched in 1980 where a large number of trees was planted and in early 1999 the government changed gear and launched a new campaign 'GREEN CAMPAIGN' where 1 st January of every year was officially declared as a national tree planting day.
4. THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (NGO's) IN ENVIRONMETAL CONSERVATION. Tanzania government through TFAP (Tanzania Forest Action Plan) has been raising awareness among the local communities through involvement of local communities, individuals and local institutions such as Community Based Organisations (CBOs); Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and Non-Governmental Organistions (NGOs) which are primarily mushrooming from the grassroots. These institutions do play a big role in raising awareness among the local communities as they do connect the grassroot with the government or partners in development, promoting government's accountability and responsibility; enhance local people's participation in identification of problems, planning and implementation in sustainable environmental development and management through education.
4.1. GREEN ARUSHA SOCIETY IN BRIEF AS PART OF NGOs OPERATING IN TANZANIA AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Green Arusha Society (GAS) is a registered Non- Governmental Organisation operating largely in Arusha region established in 1996 on the basic concept of environmental conservation and eco-development in local communities. It is a non-religious, non-political and non-profit making organisation rendering services within the urban and rural communities, it is such an indigenous organization that works basicaly on balancing the interests of the local people and the government as far as environmental conservation is concerned.
♣ GENERAL OBJECTIVES To CREATE awareness within local communities on environmental destruction impacts. To SUPPORT environmental activities within local communities. To MOBILIZE urban and rural people in different groups to fight against poverty and HIV/AIDS crisis. To PROMOTE environmental conservation among women and youth groups. To FACILITATE trainings on eco-development, cultural tourism, and conservation of natural environments to different groups.
♣ ACTIVITIES Our activities include raising awareness among the local people through trainings and seminars on environmental conservation, tree nursery operation, soil conservation programmes and motivation for forestry interests to individuals and groups in local communities, advocacy on women rights in possession, management and utilization of resources in pastoral community particularly Maasai community.
♣ CURRENT PROJECTS Women and Environments Programme Green Arusha Society is currently working on environmental conservation awareness in different areas in the region and has its focus on women in pastoral community particularly the Maasai, considering that women and children in the pastoral communities are the most vulnerable groups affected by shortage of fuel wood and water that makes it necessary to travel a long distance searching for fuel wood and water.
Women Environ contin…… They sometimes make use of dry cow dung for cooking as an alternative to fuel wood that would otherwise be used as manure on the farms, the cow dung’s smoke is rather harmful to their health particularly on eyes and respiratory system. Apart from that, also Green Arusha Society is highly concerned on the time spent out for the activity having no enough time for other developmental activities and caring of the families.
…Women and Environments Programme continues… The Objective of WEP is to encourage women in rural communities to become involved in environmental conservation by planting trees around their homesteads and farmlands as well as growing vegetables for the improvements of their environments and nutrition for their families, also other developmental and social activites.
School Environmental Development Project (SEDP) This project has been operating since 2002 in some of the local primary schools where school children are involved in environmental conservation activities. SEDP aims at raising awareness on environmental conservation believing in capability of children to easily grasp and practice the knowledge and skills. The project involves various activities such as establishment of an environmental club in each school commonized by the name ‘GREEN MAZINGIRA CLUB’ ; tree nursery operations and provision of tree nursery equipments; tree planting and caring; trainings and seminars to both teachers and students by audio vision and study visits; inter-school competition; inter-school exchange programme; motivation by giving prizes to winner individuals; as well as regular visits for encouragements.
…School Environmental Development Project (SEDP)… SEDP objectives are; To create awareness through education, among primary school children on environmental conservation and involve them in various activities related to environments. To improve environments around the target schools to minimize environmental pollution, wind destruction and soil erosion to bring back the conducive studying environments.
Maasai women’s rights awareness Accomplishment of environmental projects in local societies especially the gender sensitive ones, mostly face many problems against customs and traditions. It has been noted that, in pastoral societies, the Maasai in particular, women are lagged behind by customs and traditions upon possession, management and utilization of resources, as well as access to education. In fact, women are forced to accept the situation as a lifestyle that being inherited form one generation to another.
Maasai Women Right contin….. The organization is concerned on fighting against violation of women’s rights in the societies on possession, management and utilization of resources. Activities include sensitizing local government, traditional and political leaders; training and workshops to the newly formed women groups in 10 villages of the Maasai community.
The MWRAP’s Objective. The project’s objective is to raise awareness among the Maasai women on their rights on possession, management and utilization of natural resources, environmental conservation and access to formal education and life skills.
Community environmental awareness project (ceap) The concept of environmental conservation in the local communities does not really based on specific groups as mentioned above, the government, through environmental committees has its role in involving the whole community regardless of gender, age, title and race. The project includes mobilization and strengthening of village environmental committees through capacity building trainings and seminars, inter- village exchange program, excursions and much more. Tree planting in rural communities is of high concern to mitigate environmental problems including the prevailing global warming.
CEAP Objective The CAEP objective is basically aimed at helping the entire local communities to identify, understand and solve the prevailing environmental problems that are facing them around the villages.
‘MAZINGIRA NI RAFIKI KWA HIYO TUJITUME’ (ENVIRONMENT IS FRIEND, LETS CONSERVE IT) Let us conserve the Environment, It is our Friend J.L.Severre DIRECTOR Tell /84/