Presentation on theme: "Workshop on Atbara Basin Transboundary Civil Society Engagement Kassala - Sudan (18 – 21 March 2007)"— Presentation transcript:
Workshop on Atbara Basin Transboundary Civil Society Engagement Kassala - Sudan (18 – 21 March 2007)
Contents Background. Refugees impact on natural resources. COR, FNC & UNHCR interventions. The present situation of natural resources. Conclusion.
1.1 Background Sudan has received across its borders massive waves of refugees fleeing from: - Civil war. Natural calamities. Political turmoil. Tribal conflicts in the neighboring countries in particular eastern, central and western of Sudan. Large influx is during the period 1967 – 1985 where the population of refugees reached 1.1 million. Gedarif and Kassala states hosted 90% of this total number from Eritrea, Ethiopia & Somalia.
1.2 Background Nature of refugees are approximately 45% are pastoral nomads, some 35% are sustainable farmers and remaining 20% are semi nomads/ seasonal subsistence farmers. Exploitation of natural resources to meet their shelter, fuelwood (Charcoal & firewood) and folder for their animals. The result is intensive removal of the natural vegetation and associated soil erosion, which is resulted in environmental degradations. Responsibility GOS & UNHCR.
2.1:Refugees Impacts Needs: Safety of refugees. Placing of refugees. Refugees needs as far as natural resources in concerned :- Building materials for hut construction. Fuelwood (firewood & Charcoal). Fodder for their animal.
2.2: Refugees Impacts Results: Deforestation Deterioration of Natural Resources
3. COR, FNC & UNHCR interventions:- To address these problems different environmental projects had been formulated during the period 1985 – 2006 to involve refugees and local communities to participate in the rehabilitation & management of the natural environment.
3. COR, FNC & UNHCR interventions :- 1.Increase awareness of refugees and local communities on environment. 2.Rehabilitate Forests National Corporation reserved forest. 3.Establishment of community nurseries. The objectives of these projects are to:
3. COR, FNC & UNHCR interventions:- 4.Natural resource management and compound tree planting. 5.Introduce systematic use of fuel-efficient stoves and improved cooking techniques. 6.Establishment of community woodlot through community participation. The objectives of these projects are to:
4.1: The present situation of natural resources The state is subjected to severe destruction of the natural resources particularly natural forests. This destruction is attributed to:- - Influx of refugees. - Mechanized farming. - Misuse & lack of scientific management.
4.2: The present situation of natural resources The situation of forestry cover which include reserve & under reserved forest is representing 2.8 % of the state total area, however, the recommended area has to be under forestry according to the law of forests and natural resources 2002 is supposed to be 25% of the state area.
On the other hand, the situation of other natural resources since deforestation was take place, is the denudation of vegetation cover and water resource depletion which result in loss of pasture, animal wealth and agricultural land. In serious cases, soil erosion & gully formation is very common in the area, which together with impacts on pasture and agriculture, is totally disrupt the previously existing pattern of economic activities of the area. All of these troubles is an out come of delays or failures in remedial re-a forestation efforts. 4.3: The present situation of natural resources
5.1: Conclusion In spite of the rehabilitation programmes carried out by FNC and NGO's working in Kassala state headed by UNHCR environmental projects we found that the rate of rehabilitation & conservation of the natural resources particularly forestry sector is by far less than the magnitude of the severe destruction took place during the period 1985 up to now
To rectify the situation the following measures has to be considered: - Increase the areas under annual plantation programme covering both rainfed & irrigated plantations. Activate the role of community participation on protection, management & establishment their own community forests to reduce the pressure on natural forests. Introduce & encourage the use of fuel alternative, fuel efficient stoves and cooking techniques to reduce the current level of fuel consumption and consequently reduce the trend towards felling of trees for fuel wood needs. 5.2: Conclusion
Activate the role of forestry technical sector to formulate management plans for Government forests reserve & community forests. Introduce soil reclamation & water harvesting techniques programmes in the deteriorated areas. Increase & improve areas under range-land programmes to meet the needs of livestock in the area. 5.3: Conclusion