Presentation on theme: "Neithercut Woodland Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Neithercut Woodland Management Steve BergTJ NantaisShannon WheelerBrandon Evans
2Introduction Group of Mammals of Neithercut Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes fulva)Bobcat (Lynx rufus)Coyote (Canis latrans)White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
3Red Fox Vulpes vulpes fulva Smallest member of Canidae Common by late PleistoceneCrossed Beringia and released by settlersRed, Silver, or Cross coat typesBarbara Simpson
4Red Fox Breeding season December-April in Midwest Sexually Mature in the first Year & monestrousGestation lasts daysMean litter of 5 pupsBoth parents provide careExploring begins after 3 weeksWeaned at 5 weeksDispersal brought by onset of puberty (usually end of summer)31 and 11 km dispersal for males and females respectivelyHank Velder
5Red Fox Super Generalist Active hunters Fruit & Vegetable in summer Carnivorous in WinterSmall mammals most important
6Red Fox Most widely distributed carnivore in the world Arctic to desert and everything in betweenLarivière and Pasitchniak-Arts 1996adapted from others
7Red Fox Lowland hardwood prefferred Swamps avoided Well drained sandy soils needed for Den sitesTerritorialCommon and occurs in Neithercut
8Red Fox Scale is serious issue Successful in fragmented and heterogeneous landscapesHome range is 4.9 to 11.8 times the size of NeithercutHome range affected by sympatric predators
9Red Fox Predators: man, coyote, wolf Man mortality: hunt and harvest 83%, car kills 11%Diseases play minor role
10Bobcat Life History: Smallest non-domesticated cat in Michigan Typically 2-3 times the size of any domesticated cat750-1,100 mm long, tail being mmLargely active at nightExpert tree climbersDiet consists mainly of small mammals and birdsCamoflauged coloring assists in huntingAverage litter size is 3Very solitaryUses urine markings and feces to mark its “own” territory
11BobcatHabitat:Once was found in mountains, semi-desert, or forested areasUpland hardwoods, hardwood-conifer mixed forest, lowland swamps, and riparian zonesHighly adaptable despite habitat lost to human settlementLikes to have lots of vegetation to hide in while huntingOften have several den sites
12Bobcat Range: Once was found in all parts of Michigan Due to human settlement, and agriculture, there are now areas in Southern Lower Michigan without bobcatsWill travel anywhere from sq km for food and mating purposes, sometimes even 12 km in a single nightTypically a female’s territory will not overlap another females, but may however overlap with adjacent male territories
13Bobcat Status & Occurrence: Found from southern Canada, all the way throughout the U.S. and MexicoFound all throughout the Upper Peninsula and the northern half of the Lower PeninsulaRecently a bobcat was killed in Albion, MichiganThis suggests that the bobcat very well could have extended its range much further into southern Michigan.
14Coyote (Canis latrans) Origins:Fossil record traces back to the Pleistocene epochRoughly 1 MYAIn fact, many canids trace their origins back to this period-coyotes, foxes, dingos
15Physical Characteristics CoyotePhysical CharacteristicsPrimarily brownish gray with cream colored underside and throatVaries from nearly black to red to nearly whiteLong, slender muzzle with large caninesBushy tail that’s half body lengthAbnormally large ears in relation to body sizeSexual dimorphismMales average 14 kgFemales average 13 kgLarger in eastern U.S.
16Coyote Commonly misidentified as wolves Size Tails Tracks Muzzle Canine
17Coyote Reproduction Courtship 2-3 months January to March Females in heat for up to five daysGestation Period: 9 weeksUp to 19 pups/litter (6)Venture out at only 3 weeksWeaned at 6 weeksAltered by conditionsMaturity: 9-10 months (both)
18Coyote Ecology Dens Territoriality Activity Lifespan Packs? concealment, high prey availability, proximity to waterUtilize those of smaller animals like woodchucks and badgersTerritorialityHighly territorialMales = 42 square kilometers]Females = 10 kilometersOverlap?Activityboth day and night, primarily nocturnalLifespan6-8 years, max 10 yrsPacks?Alpha pair, but up to 10 individuals
20Coyote Predators MI trapping from Oct 15 to Mar 1 Private Property Wolves and competition
21Coyote Habitat and Range Originally plains and sparsely wooded areas Now deserts, swamps, tundra, grasslands, brush, and dense forests below sea level to high altitudesurbanAll of Canada and Alaska except severe and most of Central America
22Coyote Status and Occurrence Not listed and endangered or threatened More overabundant in areas(not Clare County)0-3 individuals/square kilometer in optimal habitat
23White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) DescriptionTan/brown in summer and grayish brown in winter. Has white on its throat, around eyes and nose, stomach and underside of tail.Males (Bucks) weigh lbs. Males have antlers and regrow them every year.Females (Does) weigh lbs.Stand 3.5 ft. at shoulder.Life span =10 years in wild.PredatorsWolvesCoyotes
24White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Range: Throughout the majority of the North American continent, expect many areas west of the Continental Divide and colder areas of the north.Status & Occurrence: Found in every county in Michigan. Deer’s home range is less than a sq. mile.
25White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Habitat use:Requirements1) cover- escape and protection from predators, bedding, thermal protection in winter.2) space- activities and homeland.3) water- surface or preformed areas.4) food- browse, forbs, grasses, and succulents.Ideal habitat = dense thickets (in which to hide and move about), edges (which furnish food), and openings to encourage deer to stay in area.Potential habitat = forested cover, croplands, grasslands, urban areas.Habitat needs vary by season and area of state.Spring/summer-green growth (high nutrition value-recover from winter)Fall – night night.Winter- cover to protect from cold temps + winds
26White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) BehaviorNervous/shy species, very cautious and depend on keen sense of smell and hearing.Social creatures- establish herd hierarchy and warn each other of potential danger through vocal, visual, and olfactory (smell) cues.When alarmed they stomp hooves and snort to warn other deer. Also raises it’s tail, “flag”, to show white underside.Very fast runners (can reach up speeds up to 40 m.p.h.), leapers (up to 15 ft. and as far as 30 ft.), and swimmers.Social Units:Doe/fawn groups.Buck groups. Alone during breeding season.
27White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) ReproductionMate in 2nd year some females can mate as young as 7 months.Breeding season: Oct.-Dec.Gestation is approx. 6.5 months ( days)During the “rut” bucks mark their territories with scrapes and rubs.Bucks travel many miles out of their home range to breed with several does.Does go into heat in Nov. for a short 24-hr. period. If she doesn’t mate she will go through a second estrus 28 days later.1-3 fawns.Fawns weigh 4-8lbs at birth and have a reddish-brown coat with white spots.They are able to nibble on vegetation a few days after birth and are weaned by 10 weeks, they remain with doe until the next breeding season starts.Their spotted coat is replaced in 4-5 months and they reach their max. size in 3-5 years.
28White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) DietBrowser/grazerFoods high in nutritional value.Grasses, legumes, leaves, twigs, agricultural crops – corn, alfalfa, buckwheat. Also orchids, garden vegetables, and ornamentals.Deer prefer particular plants and will not eat others until preferred is no longer available (winter= starvation foods).Whitetail’s are ruminants - four chambered stomach. Allows the animal to gather a lot of food at once, then chew and digest it at a later convenience.
29Management Goals & Objectives Maintain Biodiversity of Neithercut WoodlandAssess mngt. techniques similar to adaptive mngt. diagramDetermine extent of management needed for species addressedDetermine population levels through mark-recapture studies and other techniques
30Management Goals & Objectives Increase denning habitat for bobcatCreate and maintain coarse woody debris (CWD)Decrease road mortalityBuild underpasses through US-115
31Management Goals & Objectives Increase early successional, grassland, and shrubland habitatClear cut three 10 acre plots leaving treetopsBurn and plow 10 acre field to plant native grassesInvasive plant species control (Autumn Olive)Plant native fruit-bearing species (wild raspberry and blackberry)
32Description of AreaNeithercut Woodland is found five miles northwest of Farewell, MI in Clare County off highway US-115 and is surrounded by forests to the north, west, and east, and farmland to the south.This property consists of 252 acres that was donated to CMU from the Littlefield family.At this scale of classification, Neithercut is predominately forest and wetland with little open areas.
33Current ConditionsMajor habitats include: mixed hardwood forests(mixed stands of aspen, oak, sugar maple, and white birch), , cedar swamps, beech-maple climax forests, cattail marshes, shrub swamps, prairies, meadows, vernal pools, and creeks.Edge habitat varies within these major habitats as well as the successional stages from lowland to upland forests.Areas immediately surrounding Neithercut Woodland are largely herbaceous and open field/agricultural type vegetative habitats.This figure shows specific types of vegetation in and around Neithercut Woodland.Sandy loams and loamy sands were lumped into the same category and muck is a coarse classification of very poorly drained soils.
34Management Recommendations Proposed ten acre plots for clear-cutting and controlled burn.
35Management Recommendations Proposed sites for underpasses allowing safe passage for wildlife under US-115 into Neithercut Woodland which is outlined in black.
36Evaluation and Monitoring Trapping and mark-recaptureGeneral population estimateRadio telemetryPatterns of movement and habitat useDNA analysisScat samples and hair from snaresTrack surveysPatterns of habitat use, corridors
37Year OneContact Road Commission and propose possible locations for underpassSpring/Summer/Fall:Trapping and mark-recapture for population estimatesRadio telemetry study to establish habitat use in and around Neithercut WoodlandSend out bids to logging companiesPhysical removal of invasive autumn oliveWinter:Track surveysCutting autumn olive and applying herbicide to stemYear TwoBased on data from year one, solidify direction of management recommendationsContinued negotiations on underpassSpring/Summer:Burn and plow field and plantClear cuttingYear ThreeFinalize plans for underpassContinued removal of autumn oliveContinued planting of native plant species in early successional habitats created in previous year to reinsure their yearly stabilityYear FourBegin construction of underpassContinued autumn olive control/removalYear FiveComplete construction of underpassMaintain clear cut areas through selective cuttingYear Six Through Year TenBegin monitoring success of management planTrack surveys, trail cams in underpass and clear cut areas, DNA analysis, trap and mark-recaptureAssess and evaluate whether further autumn olive control is necessaryEvaluate results and begin further management recommendationsTimeline
38Budget YEAR 1 TOTAL ($3,950) YEAR 2 TOTAL ($5,777) YEAR 3 TOTAL ($170) TOTAL COST OF IMPLEMENTATION($2,516,027)(SUBJECT TO CHANGE)ALL MANUAL LABOR IS VOLUNTEER-BASED