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The Eastern Woodlands II: The Terminal Archaic Transition Lecture 21 North American Archaeology Winter 2007 UCSC Lecture 21 North American Archaeology.

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Presentation on theme: "The Eastern Woodlands II: The Terminal Archaic Transition Lecture 21 North American Archaeology Winter 2007 UCSC Lecture 21 North American Archaeology."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Eastern Woodlands II: The Terminal Archaic Transition Lecture 21 North American Archaeology Winter 2007 UCSC Lecture 21 North American Archaeology Winter 2007 UCSC

2 The “Terminal Archaic” BC Series of Technological and Social Innovations Pottery--storage and cooking technology Horticulture Squash and Bottle Gourd Local Complex of Weedy Annuals Elaborate mortuary rituals and monuments Expansion of local and regional economic and social networks BC Series of Technological and Social Innovations Pottery--storage and cooking technology Horticulture Squash and Bottle Gourd Local Complex of Weedy Annuals Elaborate mortuary rituals and monuments Expansion of local and regional economic and social networks

3 Invention of Pottery in East Fiber-Tempered Ware BC So. Atlantic Coast Shell midden sites Stallings Island Stallings Island, Savannah River, GA Thick, rounded or flat- bottomed open bowls w/ simple incised or punctated decoration Fiber-Tempered Ware BC So. Atlantic Coast Shell midden sites Stallings Island Stallings Island, Savannah River, GA Thick, rounded or flat- bottomed open bowls w/ simple incised or punctated decoration

4 Steatite Bowls Widely traded throughout Mid-Atlantic and NE between BC Associated w/ more intensive use of seeds and nuts

5 Steatite-Tempered Pottery Marcey Creek Plain 1300 BC Sassman: Male status-building may have resisted development of ceramics by women Steatite-Tempered Pottery Marcey Creek Plain 1300 BC Sassman: Male status-building may have resisted development of ceramics by women

6 Grit-Tempered Pottery 1000BC Vinette I (NY) Examples from Koster Cord-marked, conical bottom (typical Woodland Tradition pottery) More heat resistant-- better for direct heat cooking Vinette I Pottery

7 The “Container Revolution” Bruce Smith Sedentary groups--need more storage, and/or Direct heat cooking (boiling) Associated with increased nut and seed processing in Late Archaic Alternative Hypothesis: Early pottery as “prestige technology”--used as special containers for preparing and serving food at competitive feasts (“Big Men”) Bruce Smith Sedentary groups--need more storage, and/or Direct heat cooking (boiling) Associated with increased nut and seed processing in Late Archaic Alternative Hypothesis: Early pottery as “prestige technology”--used as special containers for preparing and serving food at competitive feasts (“Big Men”)

8 Origins of Early Gardening Complexes in East Early Eastern Mexican Complex Squash (Curcurbita pepo) Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) Early Sites Koster ( BC) Bacon Bend ( BC) Phillips Spring ( BC) Natural spread or human agents??

9 Eastern Agricultural Complex Asch and Asch (1970s) Complex of local weedy annuals (“small grains”) Sunflower, marshelder (sumpweed) goosefoot, maygrass, knotweed, little barley Propagated beyond natural range Some show genetic changes (domestication) by 2000 BC Salts Cave, Newt Kash Hallow Asch and Asch (1970s) Complex of local weedy annuals (“small grains”) Sunflower, marshelder (sumpweed) goosefoot, maygrass, knotweed, little barley Propagated beyond natural range Some show genetic changes (domestication) by 2000 BC Salts Cave, Newt Kash Hallow

10 Why did “small grain” horticulture develop in East? Richard Ford Stress and competition Deliberately fostering spread of certain species Bruce Smith Casual and opportunistic Sedentary settlements caused restructuring of floodplain ecosystems Kristen Gremillion “Small grains” abundant, dependable, and nutritious, but hard to process Delay cost of processing by storing (caching) Supplement other foods, especially during Winter Richard Ford Stress and competition Deliberately fostering spread of certain species Bruce Smith Casual and opportunistic Sedentary settlements caused restructuring of floodplain ecosystems Kristen Gremillion “Small grains” abundant, dependable, and nutritious, but hard to process Delay cost of processing by storing (caching) Supplement other foods, especially during Winter

11 Early Mound Complexes Watson’s Brake (3900 BC) NE Louisiana 11 mounds and oval enclosure

12 Poverty Point Site 2200 BC-1200 BC Bayou Macon, LA 6 concentric ridges High population density Mound complexes Mound A Mound B Motley Mound Lower Jackson Mound 2200 BC-1200 BC Bayou Macon, LA 6 concentric ridges High population density Mound complexes Mound A Mound B Motley Mound Lower Jackson Mound

13 Evidence of post and living debris on top of embankments--houses?? 600 houses = 3000 people?? Charred remains of floor mats

14 Mound A (Bird Effigy?)

15 Mound B Cremation burials Mound B Cremation burials

16 Typical Late Archaic subsistence Rich ecotone setting Hunted deer, small mammals, birds, fish Collected fruit, nuts, seeds Squash cultivation (and maybe weedy annuals) earth ovensPoverty Pt objects Fiber-temperd pottery, steatite bowls, earth ovens and Poverty Pt objects

17 Fancy PPT Objects Women’s status marker?

18 Plummets (fishing weights or bola stones) Randomly distributed throughout site

19 Motley Points Status symbols for high ranking warriors? Motley Points Status symbols for high ranking warriors?

20 Microlithic technology for making jasper beads Chiefly status symbols??

21 Clay figurines

22 Poverty Point Regional System PPT site center of regional system LMV and Gulf Coast 100 sites, clustered around 10 local centers Centers located at strategic ecotones Influence widespread throughout SE

23 Was Poverty Point the center of a complex regional chiefdom? Jon Gibson (1974) Organization of labor to build mounds Distribution of high status items (Motley Points, jasper beads, etc.) Three-tier settlement hierarchy Local centers located to control trade and distribution of high-ranked resources


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