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Presentation on theme: "TAMIL INFLUENCES in MALAYSIA, INDONESIA and PHILIPPINES"— Presentation transcript:


2 The Kshatriya or Aristocrat Theory
R.C. Majumdar proposed in his book Ancient Indian Colonies in the Far East (1944) following finding by the Archaeologist of ancient Indian inscriptions and religious icons in the said regions. The kings of the latter region had adopted Sanskrit names such as Sri Vijaya, Majapahit.etc. COEDES “The Indianized countries of Southeast Asia were never political dependencies of India but rather cultural colonies”

3 The Brahmin or Sacerdote Theory
COEDES the first historian to synthesize the history of Indianized state of Southeast Asia. SANSKRIT a scholarly language that served and still serves to enrich the vocabulary of the native languages with a considerable number of words.

4 BRAHMIN THEORY supports the evidence at hand that is to account for the Sanskrit language influence as well as the names and tittles of the kings of Southeast Asia. INDIANIZATION expansion of an organized culture that was founded upon the Indian Conception of royalty, was characterized by Hinduist or Buddhist Cults. synonymous with Brahmanization.

a book where comprises all his findings regarding the history of the Indianized part of Southeast Asia. “Ancient history of the Hinduized states of the extreme-orient”. BUDDHISM a culture rival to Brahmanism.

6 SACERDOTES the spiritual leaders of the Hindu Settlers and could have served as counsels to the few kings that followed Hinduism. INDIA this word is the Greek and Latin adaptations of the Persian word Hindu-At first, even the British use the word “Gentoo” for the adherents of the Hindu religion.

7 COEDES did not take any other aspects of culture or way of life into consideration in order to find the history relationship between the Indian and Indianized Southeast Asia. was not an ethnologists or a cultural anthropologists. BRAHMINS have been given exaggerated credit by Coedes.

8 The Vaisya Or Traders/Proletariat Theory
NILAKANTA SASTRI a Brahmin historian from Madras, South India. R.C. MAJUMDAR a Brahmin historian from Calcutta, Bengal, Eastern India. COEDES said that Madras claims for Tamils and Bengal claims for Bengalis. never anti Tamils.

9 TAMIL NADU deserves the greatest credit for the spread at Indian elements through peaceful settlements. L . WILLIAMS & M . OSBORNE have suggested that the importation of Indic culture was not solely or indeed primarily the task of the Brahmans and monks & that merchants could have very well been the camers of a “greater civilization”. TAMIL INSCRIPTION emanating from South India have been found in Southeast Asia.

10 2 Question/Problems Against the Traders Theory:
Regarding sanskrit words found in the local language of Southeast Asia. Regarding the existence of Indianized communities that live in the mountainous or interior areas. - communities carrying Dravidian clan names: Chera, Chola, Pandiya, Malayala and Pallarya. R .Hein – Geldern’s reminders – should be kept in mind when accounting for the Indianization of Indonesia.

11 Study of Inscriptions TAMIL INSCRIPTION
relate to the Tamil-Southeast Asian cultural contacts during historic times. 3 Inscriptions in the Malayan peninsula: in Takuapa, in Tambralinga and in Ligor 1 inscription in Sumatra, in Labu Tawa 1 inscription in Bale 1 inscription in Burma, in Pagan 2 inscription in Tanjore

mentions only about the Takuapa, Ligor and Sumatra inscription. JUAN FRANCISCO Filipino Indologist, has been very critical of the possibility of historical Tamil influences in Southeast Asia. Philippines and India the early historians who recognized Tamil’s efforts in spreading their culture.

13 Inscription of Malay Peninsula
the only document that can be attributed of the first half of the ninth century was found at Takuapa. AVANI-NARANAM dug by nangur-udaiyan. names of individual who possessed a military fief at Nangur and who was famous for his abilities as a warrior. MANIKKIRAMAM a merchant guild.

14 AVONI-NARAYANA - surname of the pallaba king Nandivarman III.
MAJAPISIDESA- a bronze image of ganesa bearing a Tamil inscription . LIGOR – another Tamil inscription dated last quarter of the 9th century A.D. DITARMASENAPATHY – according to the order, the record is one of some charity in favor of Brahmins. INSCRIPTION FOUND IN SUMATRA - dated in the month Masi of the saka year 1010. - engraved on a stone found at Laboe to wewa, Baros Sumatra and it records a gift by a body of person who style themselves “the one thousand-five hundred”.

15 INSCRIPTION of BURMA this relates to the settlement of vaishnava soldiers from South India. INSCRIPTION of BALI its mention the sivan temple that have been erected in that place. the village organization in Bale remains one of the Pallaba-Chola village organization. INSCRIPTION of TANJORE dated 1030 A.D is about the victory of Rajedra CholanI over the Southern countries.

16 State Literatures of Thailand
TAMIL – the official language of the Court Brahmins in Thailand. RAMESWARAM – Southern part of the Tamil country. SANSKRIT INSCRIPTION FOUND IN MALAYA and INDONESIA PALLABA GRANTHA letters and ASOKA PALI language – also Sanskrit inscription than by the Tamils themselves. JEAN FILLIOZAT: “If Tamilians have very often written their inscription in Sanskrit and not Tamil, it is because Sanskrit, before Persian and english , was commonly used as a link language…”

17 H.B Sarkar(1971) points out that the Pallava-Grantha script was a development of a part of the Tamil country which was ruled by the Pallvas. PRAKRIT the court language of South India until the 4th century A.D. PALLAVA-GRANTHA SCRIPT was a linguistic result of the political conglomeration of the Northern part of Tamil country and Southern parts of Kamataka and Andhra.

18 Inscription Found in Funan/Cambodia
not part of Malaya and Indonesia. JEAN FILLIOZAT explains that the said hero is a Tamil king of the Pandayan Empire. INSCRIPTION FOUND IN LIGOR refers to the trade relationship between the Tamil country in Malaya. INSCRIPTION FOUND IN KEDAH left by kulothunka CholanI. shows the commercial contacts the Chola Empire had with Malaya.

19 Inscription Found in Borneo
KUNDUNGAN a Tamil name, hence it is supposed that his princely family migrated from Tamil Nadu and established kingdom in the bland in Borneo. TAMIL INSCRIPTION at least 4 centuries posterior to the Sanskrit inscription. found dates to the early 9th century A.D SANSKRIT INSCRIPTION found (in Malaya and Indonesia) is dated to the 5th century A.D


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