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Presentation on theme: "TAMIL INFLUENCES in MALAYSIA, INDONESIA and PHILIPPINES."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Kshatriya or Aristocrat Theory R.C. Majumdar pproposed in his book Ancient Indian Colonies in the Far East (1944) following finding by the Archaeologist of ancient Indian inscriptions and religious icons in the said regions. TThe kings of the latter region had adopted Sanskrit names such as Sri Vijaya, Majapahit.etc. COEDES ““The Indianized countries of Southeast Asia were never political dependencies of India but rather cultural colonies”

3 The Brahmin or Sacerdote Theory COEDES tthe first historian to synthesize the history of Indianized state of Southeast Asia. SANSKRIT aa scholarly language that served and still serves to enrich the vocabulary of the native languages with a considerable number of words.

4 BRAHMIN THEORY ssupports the evidence at hand that is to account for the Sanskrit language influence as well as the names and tittles of the kings of Southeast Asia. INDIANIZATION eexpansion of an organized culture that was founded upon the Indian Conception of royalty, was characterized by Hinduist or Buddhist Cults. ssynonymous with Brahmanization.

5 HISTOIRE ANCIENNE DES ETATS HINDOUISES D’EXTREME-ORIENT aa book where comprises all his findings regarding the history of the Indianized part of Southeast Asia. ““Ancient history of the Hinduized states of the extreme-orient”. BUDDHISM aa culture rival to Brahmanism.

6 SACERDOTES tthe spiritual leaders of the Hindu Settlers and could have served as counsels to the few kings that followed Hinduism. INDIA tthis word is the Greek and Latin adaptations of the Persian word Hindu-At first, even the British use the word “Gentoo” for the adherents of the Hindu religion.

7 COEDES ddid not take any other aspects of culture or way of life into consideration in order to find the history relationship between the Indian and Indianized Southeast Asia. wwas not an ethnologists or a cultural anthropologists. BRAHMINS hhave been given exaggerated credit by Coedes.

8 The Vaisya Or Traders/Proletariat Theory NILAKANTA SASTRI aa Brahmin historian from Madras, South India. R.C. MAJUMDAR aa Brahmin historian from Calcutta, Bengal, Eastern India. COEDES ssaid that Madras claims for Tamils and Bengal claims for Bengalis. nnever anti Tamils.

9 TAMIL NADU ddeserves the greatest credit for the spread at Indian elements through peaceful settlements. L. WILLIAMS & M. OSBORNE hhave suggested that the importation of Indic culture was not solely or indeed primarily the task of the Brahmans and monks & that merchants could have very well been the camers of a “greater civilization”. TAMIL INSCRIPTION eemanating from South India have been found in Southeast Asia.

10 2 Question/Problems Against the Traders Theory: 1.Regarding sanskrit words found in the local language of Southeast Asia. 2.Regarding the existence of Indianized communities that live in the mountainous or interior areas. - communities carrying Dravidian clan names: Chera, Chola, Pandiya, Malayala and Pallarya. R.Hein – Geldern’s reminders – should be kept in mind when accounting for the Indianization of Indonesia.

11 Study of Inscriptions TAMIL INSCRIPTION rrelate to the Tamil-Southeast Asian cultural contacts during historic times. 3 Inscriptions in the Malayan peninsula: in Takuapa, in Tambralinga and in Ligor 1 inscription in Sumatra, in Labu Tawa 1 inscription in Bale 1 inscription in Burma, in Pagan 2 inscription in Tanjore

12 INDIANIZED STATE OF SOUTHEAST ASIA mmentions only about the Takuapa, Ligor and Sumatra inscription. JUAN FRANCISCO FFilipino Indologist, has been very critical of the possibility of historical Tamil influences in Southeast Asia. Philippines and India tthe early historians who recognized Tamil’s efforts in spreading their culture.

13 Inscription of Malay Peninsula MALAY PENINSULA tthe only document that can be attributed of the first half of the ninth century was found at Takuapa. AVANI-NARANAM ddug by nangur-udaiyan. nnames of individual who possessed a military fief at Nangur and who was famous for his abilities as a warrior. MANIKKIRAMAM aa merchant guild.

14 AVONI-NARAYANA - surname of the pallaba king Nandivarman III. MAJAPISIDESA- a bronze image of ganesa bearing a Tamil inscription. LIGOR – another Tamil inscription dated last quarter of the 9 th century A.D. DITARMASENAPATHY – according to the order, the record is one of some charity in favor of Brahmins. INSCRIPTION FOUND IN SUMATRA - dated in the month Masi of the saka year engraved on a stone found at Laboe to wewa, Baros Sumatra and it records a gift by a body of person who style themselves “the one thousand-five hundred”.

15 INSCRIPTION of BURMA tthis relates to the settlement of vaishnava soldiers from South India. INSCRIPTION of BALI iits mention the sivan temple that have been erected in that place. tthe village organization in Bale remains one of the Pallaba-Chola village organization. INSCRIPTION of TANJORE ddated 1030 A.D is about the victory of Rajedra CholanI over the Southern countries.

16 State Literatures of Thailand TAMIL – the official language of the Court Brahmins in Thailand. RAMESWARAM – Southern part of the Tamil country. SANSKRIT INSCRIPTION FOUND IN MALAYA and INDONESIA PALLABA GRANTHA letters and ASOKA PALI language – also Sanskrit inscription than by the Tamils themselves. JEAN FILLIOZAT: “If Tamilians have very often written their inscription in Sanskrit and not Tamil, it is because Sanskrit, before Persian and english, was commonly used as a link language…”

17 H.B Sarkar(1971) ppoints out that the Pallava-Grantha script was a development of a part of the Tamil country which was ruled by the Pallvas. PRAKRIT tthe court language of South India until the 4 th century A.D. PALLAVA-GRANTHA SCRIPT wwas a linguistic result of the political conglomeration of the Northern part of Tamil country and Southern parts of Kamataka and Andhra.

18 Inscription Found in Funan/Cambodia FUNAN nnot part of Malaya and Indonesia. JEAN FILLIOZAT eexplains that the said hero is a Tamil king of the Pandayan Empire. INSCRIPTION FOUND IN LIGOR rrefers to the trade relationship between the Tamil country in Malaya. INSCRIPTION FOUND IN KEDAH lleft by kulothunka CholanI. sshows the commercial contacts the Chola Empire had with Malaya.

19 Inscription Found in Borneo KUNDUNGAN aa Tamil name, hence it is supposed that his princely family migrated from Tamil Nadu and established kingdom in the bland in Borneo. TAMIL INSCRIPTION aat least 4 centuries posterior to the Sanskrit inscription. ffound dates to the early 9 th century A.D SANSKRIT INSCRIPTION ffound (in Malaya and Indonesia) is dated to the 5 th century A.D


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