Presentation on theme: "TAMIL INFLUENCES in MALAYSIA, INDONESIA and PHILIPPINES."— Presentation transcript:
TAMIL INFLUENCES in MALAYSIA, INDONESIA and PHILIPPINES
The Kshatriya or Aristocrat Theory R.C. Majumdar pproposed in his book Ancient Indian Colonies in the Far East (1944) following finding by the Archaeologist of ancient Indian inscriptions and religious icons in the said regions. TThe kings of the latter region had adopted Sanskrit names such as Sri Vijaya, Majapahit.etc. COEDES ““The Indianized countries of Southeast Asia were never political dependencies of India but rather cultural colonies”
The Brahmin or Sacerdote Theory COEDES tthe first historian to synthesize the history of Indianized state of Southeast Asia. SANSKRIT aa scholarly language that served and still serves to enrich the vocabulary of the native languages with a considerable number of words.
BRAHMIN THEORY ssupports the evidence at hand that is to account for the Sanskrit language influence as well as the names and tittles of the kings of Southeast Asia. INDIANIZATION eexpansion of an organized culture that was founded upon the Indian Conception of royalty, was characterized by Hinduist or Buddhist Cults. ssynonymous with Brahmanization.
HISTOIRE ANCIENNE DES ETATS HINDOUISES D’EXTREME-ORIENT aa book where comprises all his findings regarding the history of the Indianized part of Southeast Asia. ““Ancient history of the Hinduized states of the extreme-orient”. BUDDHISM aa culture rival to Brahmanism.
SACERDOTES tthe spiritual leaders of the Hindu Settlers and could have served as counsels to the few kings that followed Hinduism. INDIA tthis word is the Greek and Latin adaptations of the Persian word Hindu-At first, even the British use the word “Gentoo” for the adherents of the Hindu religion.
COEDES ddid not take any other aspects of culture or way of life into consideration in order to find the history relationship between the Indian and Indianized Southeast Asia. wwas not an ethnologists or a cultural anthropologists. BRAHMINS hhave been given exaggerated credit by Coedes.
The Vaisya Or Traders/Proletariat Theory NILAKANTA SASTRI aa Brahmin historian from Madras, South India. R.C. MAJUMDAR aa Brahmin historian from Calcutta, Bengal, Eastern India. COEDES ssaid that Madras claims for Tamils and Bengal claims for Bengalis. nnever anti Tamils.
TAMIL NADU ddeserves the greatest credit for the spread at Indian elements through peaceful settlements. L. WILLIAMS & M. OSBORNE hhave suggested that the importation of Indic culture was not solely or indeed primarily the task of the Brahmans and monks & that merchants could have very well been the camers of a “greater civilization”. TAMIL INSCRIPTION eemanating from South India have been found in Southeast Asia.
2 Question/Problems Against the Traders Theory: 1.Regarding sanskrit words found in the local language of Southeast Asia. 2.Regarding the existence of Indianized communities that live in the mountainous or interior areas. - communities carrying Dravidian clan names: Chera, Chola, Pandiya, Malayala and Pallarya. R.Hein – Geldern’s reminders – should be kept in mind when accounting for the Indianization of Indonesia.
Study of Inscriptions TAMIL INSCRIPTION rrelate to the Tamil-Southeast Asian cultural contacts during historic times. 3 Inscriptions in the Malayan peninsula: in Takuapa, in Tambralinga and in Ligor 1 inscription in Sumatra, in Labu Tawa 1 inscription in Bale 1 inscription in Burma, in Pagan 2 inscription in Tanjore
INDIANIZED STATE OF SOUTHEAST ASIA mmentions only about the Takuapa, Ligor and Sumatra inscription. JUAN FRANCISCO FFilipino Indologist, has been very critical of the possibility of historical Tamil influences in Southeast Asia. Philippines and India tthe early historians who recognized Tamil’s efforts in spreading their culture.
Inscription of Malay Peninsula MALAY PENINSULA tthe only document that can be attributed of the first half of the ninth century was found at Takuapa. AVANI-NARANAM ddug by nangur-udaiyan. nnames of individual who possessed a military fief at Nangur and who was famous for his abilities as a warrior. MANIKKIRAMAM aa merchant guild.
AVONI-NARAYANA - surname of the pallaba king Nandivarman III. MAJAPISIDESA- a bronze image of ganesa bearing a Tamil inscription. LIGOR – another Tamil inscription dated last quarter of the 9 th century A.D. DITARMASENAPATHY – according to the order, the record is one of some charity in favor of Brahmins. INSCRIPTION FOUND IN SUMATRA - dated in the month Masi of the saka year engraved on a stone found at Laboe to wewa, Baros Sumatra and it records a gift by a body of person who style themselves “the one thousand-five hundred”.
INSCRIPTION of BURMA tthis relates to the settlement of vaishnava soldiers from South India. INSCRIPTION of BALI iits mention the sivan temple that have been erected in that place. tthe village organization in Bale remains one of the Pallaba-Chola village organization. INSCRIPTION of TANJORE ddated 1030 A.D is about the victory of Rajedra CholanI over the Southern countries.
State Literatures of Thailand TAMIL – the official language of the Court Brahmins in Thailand. RAMESWARAM – Southern part of the Tamil country. SANSKRIT INSCRIPTION FOUND IN MALAYA and INDONESIA PALLABA GRANTHA letters and ASOKA PALI language – also Sanskrit inscription than by the Tamils themselves. JEAN FILLIOZAT: “If Tamilians have very often written their inscription in Sanskrit and not Tamil, it is because Sanskrit, before Persian and english, was commonly used as a link language…”
H.B Sarkar(1971) ppoints out that the Pallava-Grantha script was a development of a part of the Tamil country which was ruled by the Pallvas. PRAKRIT tthe court language of South India until the 4 th century A.D. PALLAVA-GRANTHA SCRIPT wwas a linguistic result of the political conglomeration of the Northern part of Tamil country and Southern parts of Kamataka and Andhra.
Inscription Found in Funan/Cambodia FUNAN nnot part of Malaya and Indonesia. JEAN FILLIOZAT eexplains that the said hero is a Tamil king of the Pandayan Empire. INSCRIPTION FOUND IN LIGOR rrefers to the trade relationship between the Tamil country in Malaya. INSCRIPTION FOUND IN KEDAH lleft by kulothunka CholanI. sshows the commercial contacts the Chola Empire had with Malaya.
Inscription Found in Borneo KUNDUNGAN aa Tamil name, hence it is supposed that his princely family migrated from Tamil Nadu and established kingdom in the bland in Borneo. TAMIL INSCRIPTION aat least 4 centuries posterior to the Sanskrit inscription. ffound dates to the early 9 th century A.D SANSKRIT INSCRIPTION ffound (in Malaya and Indonesia) is dated to the 5 th century A.D