2“In Kerala, agricultural laborers at work “In Kerala, agricultural laborers at work. The land reform process in the State broke the back of landlordism and abolished the janmi system.”
3Meaning:“Land reforms refer to direct State intervention in the agrarian structure to bring about fundamental changes.”Objectives:To remove impediments in agricultural production arising from the exploitative agrarian structure inherited from the past.To eliminate all forms of exploitation and ensure social justice within agrarian system.To provide security to the tiller of the soil and assure equality of status and opportunity to all sections of rural population.
4The Constitution (Forty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1984 An Act further to amend the Constitution of India BE it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-fifth Year of the Republic of India as follows1 Short Title (Forty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1984.2.Amendment of the Ninth Schedule.-In the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution, after entry 188 and before the Explanation, the 'following entries shall be inserted, namely:-"1.The Assam (Temporary Settled Areas) Tenancy Act, 1971 (Assam Act XXIII of 1971).190.The Assam (Temporary Settled Areas) Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Assam Act XVIII of 1974).2.The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) (Amendment) (Amending) Act, 1974 (Bihar Act 13 of 1975).3.The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Bihar Act 22 of 1976).4.The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) (Amendment) Act, 1978 (Bihar Act VII of 1978).5.The Land Acquisition (Bihar Amendment) Act, 1979 (Bihar Act 2 of 1980).
55.The Land Acquisition (Bihar Amendment) Act, 1979 (Bihar Act 2 of 1980). 6.The Haryana Ceiling on Land Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1977 (Haryana Act 14 of 1977).7.The TamilNadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1978 (TamilNadu Act 25 of 1978).8.The TamilNadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1979 (TamilNadu Act 11 of 1979).9.The Uttar Pradesh Zamindari Abolition Laws (Amendment) Act, 1978 (Uttar Pradesh Act 15 of 1978).10.The West Bengal Restoration of Alienated Land (Amendment) Act, 1978 (West Bengal Act XXIV of 1978)11.The West Bengal Restoration of Alienated Land (Amendment) Act, 1980 (West Bengal Act LVI of 1980).12.The Goa, Daman and Diu Agricultural Tenancy Act, 1964 (Goa, Daman and Diu Act 7 of 1964).13.The Goa, Daman and Diu Agricultural Tenancy (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1976 (Goa, Daman and Diu Act 17 of 1976)
6MEASURES OF LAND REFORMS Abolition Of Intermediaries.Tenancy Reforms.Reorganization Of Agriculture.
7Measures of Land Reforms Abolition of Intermediaries A high priority measure.Abolition of the following was considered:Zamindari System.Ryotwari System.Mahalwari System.General system of abolition:Common lands such as forests, waste lands,etc., which belonged to intermediaries, were passed on to the State Government.Home farms and Lands under personal cultivation of intermediaries were left with them and lessees of home farmlands either remained their tenants or brought on direct contact with the State Government.
8Measures of Land Reforms Tenancy ReformsFixation of Rent:Prior to 1951 more than 50% of produced was to be paid as rent.The rate was reduced to 25-40% after enactment of acts of regulation of rent.Security of Tenants:Tenants can only be ejected if they do not pay the rent, damage it, or use the land for non-cultivation purposes.Land owners can resume a limited area for private use.In such a case, the tenant is given prescribed minimum area for cultivation.Rights of Ownership:In certain States tenants can own the land by paying suitable installments to the previous owners.In certain States, Governments have purchased the land and has given options to tenants to either continue as tenants or pay the prescribed minimum price to the state.
9Measures of Land Reforms Reorganization of AgricultureRedistribution of Land :Provision of limit to the amount of land holdings according to the family (since 1972).18 Acres of wet land & 54 Acres of dry land.Specialized farms like cattle breeding, dairying,, wool raising, or efficiently managed farms were exempted .
10Measures of Land Reforms Reorganization of AgricultureConsolidation of Land Holdings:This policy is aimed at consolidating small and scattered pieces of land into compact units so as to reduce wastage, adopt scientific techniques and bring about permanent improvement of land.Consolidation is complete in Punjab and Haryana, and near completion in UP, Gujarat, HP, J&K, and Karnataka.Difficulties:Average Indian farmer is very attached to his land.It is difficult to allot the farmers the same quality of land, due to difference in quality.Lack of complete and reliable data.
11Measures of Land Reforms Reorganization of AgricultureCooperative Farming:Aims at solving the problems of subdivision.Farmers can pool their lands and reap the benefits of large scale production.Can jointly use all scientific tools and equipments.Joint Marketing of products is possible.Not very successful due to:Mostly formed by big farmers.Very few in numbers.Problem of inefficient management and functioning.
12Evaluation of Land Reforms in India Words Like Freedom : Memoirs of an Impoverished Indian FamilyBy Siddharth Dube>>“Hunger drives him to sell his two months old daughter for forty rupees and five kilo rice.”LAND REFORMS IN INDIA — TamilNadu — An Unfinished TaskBy M. Thangaraj<<
14Evaluation of Land Reforms in India Flaws in the Programme:Lack of political will.Flaws in legislation:Definition of personal cultivation.Substantial limit for personal cultivation.Mala fide transfers.Inadequate definition of tenants.Problem of voluntary surrender.Insufficient ceiling laws.Good Results:End of Zamindari system.Many actual tillers of land became owners.Wastelands, etc. came in possession of the government.Checked exploitation of tenants.