C A R D I N A L N U M B E R S 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty continue
21 twenty-one 22 twenty-two 23 twenty-three 24 twenty-four 25 twenty-five 26 twenty-six 27 twenty-seven 28 twenty-eight 29 twenty-nine 30 thirty 31 thirty-one 32 thirty-two... 39 thirty-nine 40 forty 41 forty-one 42 forty-two... 49 forty-nine 50 fifty continue C A R D I N A L N U M B E R S
60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety 100 a hundred 200 two hundred 300 three hundred 400 four hundred... 1 000 a thousand 2 000 two thousand 3 000 three thousand 4 000 four thousand... 1 000 000 a million 1 000 000 000 a thousand million... 1 000 000 000 000 a billion continue C A R D I N A L N U M B E R S
continue 4598 four thousand, five hundred and ninety-eight 7201 seven thousand, two hundred and one 29874 twenty-nine thousand, eight hundred and seventy-four 160 a hundred and sixty (or one hundred and sixty) 1003 a thousand and three 365 three hundred and sixty-five *** Obsérvese que tanto na fala como na escrita, nun número composto débese colocar o “and” diante da última palabra C A R D I N A L N U M B E R S Examples:
thousands of birdsmiles de paxaros hundreds of peoplecentos de persoas dozens of eggsducias de ovos 1111 one thousand, one hundred and eleven 12 a dozen *** As palabras hundred, thousand, million, cando indican un número concreto, nunca se poñen en plural. Sen embargo, cando só se quere dar idea dun número grande, débense colocar en plural: C A R D I N A L N U M B E R S Examples:
1º first 1st 2º second 2nd 3º third 3rd 4º fourth 4th 5º fifth 5th 6º sixth 6th 7º seventh 7th 8º eighth 8th 9º ninth 9th 10º tenth 10th 11º eleventh 12º twelfth 13º thirteenth 14º fourteenth 15º fifteenth 16º sixteenth 17º seventeenth 18º eighteenth 19º nineteenth 20º twentieth continue O R D I N A L N U M B E R S
21º twenty-first 22º twenty-second 23º twenty-third 24º twenty-fourth 25º twenty-fifth 26º twenty-sixth 27º twenty-seventh 28º twenty-eighth 29º twenty-ninth 30º thirtieth 31º thirty-first 32º thirty-second... 39º thirty-ninth 40º fortieth 41º forty-first 42º forty-second... 49º forty-ninth 50º fiftieth continue O R D I N A L N U M B E R S
60º sixtieth 70º seventieth 80º eightieth 90º ninetieth 100º a hundredth 200º two hundredth 300º three hundredth 400º four hundredth... 1 000º a thousandth 2 000º two thousandth 3 000º three thousandth 4 000º four thousandth... 1 000 000º a millionth 1 000 000 000º a thousand millionth... 1 000 000 000 000º a billionth continue O R D I N A L N U M B E R S
4598º four thousand, five hundred and ninety-eighth = 4598th 7201º seven thousand, two hundred and first = 7201st 29874º twenty-nine thousand, eight hundred and seventy-fourth = 29874th 160º a hundred and sixtieth (or one hundred and sixtieth) = 160th 1003º a thousand and third = 1003rd 365º three hundred and sixty-fifth = 365th *** Obsérvese que se segue a colocar o “and” diante da última palabra. *** Hai que engadir que é moi común colocar o artigo “the” diante dos números ordinais. O R D I N A L N U M B E R S Examples:
D E C I M A L N U M B E R S 45.98 forty-five-point-nine-eight 72.01 seventy-two-point-oh-one 298.74 two-hundred and ninety-eight-point-seven-four 0.125 zero – point – one – two – five = point-one-two-five 0.09 zero-point-oh-nine = point-oh-nine 1.347 one-point-three-four-seven *** Logo do punto decimal, as cifras lense unha a unha. Diante do punto decimal, coma os números enteiros. *** Despois do punto decimal, o cero lese “oh”. Examples:
1/2 one half 1/3 one third 1/4 a quarter 1/5 one fifth 1/6 one sixth 2/3 two thirds 2/4 two fourths 2/5 two fifths 2/6 two sixths 3/4 three fourths 3/5 three fifths 3/6 three sixths 4/5 four fifths 4/6 four sixths continue F R A C T I O N S
19/100 nineteen hundreths 1/12 one twelfth 11/40 eleven fourtieths 3/64 three sixty-fourths 4/17 four seventeenths 1/8 one eighth F R A C T I O N S continue Examples:
6500 dólares six and a half thousand dolars = 6 1/2 thousand dollars 1 litro e medio one and a half liters = 1 1/2 liters = a liter and a half 2 2/3 two and two thirds 5 3/4 five and three quarters 3 horas e media three and a half hours = 3 1/2 hours = 3 hours and a half F R A C T I O N S
A D D I T I O N *** O signo de sumar, +, lese “plus”. Así, dirase: 45+98 = 143 forty-five plus ninety-eight equals one hundred and forty-three 3+4 = 7 three (3) plus four (4) equals (=, is) seven (7) 36+5 = 41 thirty-six plus five equals (is) forty-one
S U B T R A C T I O N *** O signo de restar, -, lese “minus”. Así, dirase: 19-9 = 10 nineteen minus nine equals ten 36-5 = 31 thirty-six minus five equals (is) thirty-one 45-98 = -43 forty-five minus ninety-eight is minus forty-three (or negative forty-three)
M U L T I P L I C A T I O N *** O signo de multiplicar, x ou ·, lese “multiplied by” ou “times”. Así, dirase: 45·98 = 4410 forty-five multiplied by ninety-eight is four thousand, four hundred and ten 2 x 4 = 8 two multiplied by four equals eight 3 x 7 = 21 three times seven equals twenty-one
D I V I S I O N *** O signo de dividir, : ou / (“slash”), lese “divided by”. Así, dirase: 3/24 = 1/8 three divided by twenty-four equals one eighth or zero-point-one-two-five 24/3 = 8 twenty-four divided by three equals eight 4/17 = 0.235… four divided by seventeen is zero-point-two- three-five-dots or simply four seventeenths
E X P O N E N T S *** Unha potencia (“power”), a elevado a b, lerase “a to power of b”, ou “a to the b”, ou “a exponent b”, onde “a” é a “base” e “b” é o “exponent” ou “index”. Así, dirase: 2323 two to power of 3 ou two to the third power ou two to the third ou two exponent three x4x4 x to the fourth power ou x to the fourth ou x exponent four
R O O T S o r R A D I C A L S *** En “raíz n-ésima de A”, o símbolo radical chámase “radical bar”, o n chámase “the index” e o radicando chámase “the rooted” ou “radicand”. Dirase: * A 2-index root is called “square root” (e.g. the square root of two) * A 4-index root is called “fourth root” * A 3-index root is called “cube root” (e.g. the cube root of eight is two) * A n-index root is called “n-th root”
U N I T S -- S. I. * The “Système International (SI)” or “Système International d’Unités”, adopted by international agreement in 1960, is based on the METRE (m), KILOGRAM (kg) and SECOND (s) as the fundamental units of length, mass, and time, respectively. * Derivated units such as the NEWTON (N), JOULE (J), WATT (W), and PASCAL (Pa) are defined in terms of these.
U N I T S -- M E T R I C S Y S T E M *In the Metric System the units and the subunits are related by multiples of ten, and the METRE is the unit of length. *Multiples and fractions of the basic units are denoted by the following prefixes and symbols: 10 18 exa-(E)10 -1 deci-(d) 10 15 peta-(P)10 -2 centi-(c) 10 12 tera-(T)10 -3 milli-(m) 10 9 giga-(G)10 -6 micro-(m) 10 6 mega-(M)10 -9 nano-(n) 10 3 kilo-(k)10 -12 pico-(p) 10 2 hecto-(h)10 -15 femto-(f) 10 1 deca-(d)10 -18 atto-(a)
U N I T S -- L E N G T H *When there is more than one inch/mile/centimetre, we normally use the plural form of these words: one inch/ten inches, one mile/four miles, one centimetre/five centimetres. *When used in compound adjectives the above terms never take the plural form: a two-mile walk, a six-inch ruler. 12 inches (in.)=1 foot (ft.) 3 feet=1 yard (yd.) 1,760 yards=1 mile (m.) 1 inch=2.54 centimetres (cm) 1 yard=0.914 metre (m) 1 mile=1.609 kilometres (km) *When there is more than one foot we can use either foot or feet; feet is the more usual when measuring heights. We can say: six foot tall or six feet tall, two foot long or two feet long, thirty foot high or thirty feet high.
U N I T S -- A R E A 1 square centimetre=1 cm x 1 cm 1 square metre=1 m x 1m 1 are=100 square metres 1 hectare=10,000 square metres 1 square kilometre=1,000,000 square metres 1 square yard=9 square feet 1 square perch=30.25 square yards 1 acre=160 square perches 1 square mile=640 acres
U N I T S -- V O L U M E 1 cubic centimetre=1 cm x 1 cm x 1 cm 1 cubic metre=1 m x 1m x 1m 1 (fluid) ounze=28.4 mililitres (mL) 1 pint (pt.)=20 ounzes (0.568 litre) 1 quart (qt.)=2 pints 1 gallon (gal.)=4 quarts (=4.55 litres)
U N I T S -- W E I G H T S * Ounce, pound, and ton can take s in the plural when they are used as nouns; stone and hundredweight do not take s: six pound of sugar/six pounds of sugar, ten hundredweight of coal. * The metric system of weights based on the kilo or kilogram is gradually replacing the English system. Kilo or kilogram usually take s in the plural when used as a noun: a two kilos of apples or two kilograms of apples. 16 ounces (oz.)=1 pound (lb.) 14 pounds=1 stone (st.) 8 stones=1 hundredweight (cwt.) 20 cwt=1 ton 1 pound=0.454 kilogram (kg) 2.2 pounds=1 kilogram * When used in compound adjectives these terms never take s: a ten-ton lorry.
U N I T S -- A N G L E S radian (rad)=57º 17’ 44.8” degree of arc (º)= p /180 rad minute of arc (‘)=1º/60 arcsecond, second of arc (“)=1º/3600 grad, gradian, gon (gr)=0.9º centesimal minute of arc (‘)=1 gr/100 centesimal second of arc (“)=1 gr/10000 sign=30º octant=45º sextant=60º quadrant=90º
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