2In Italy, the Constitution considers the Educational System as a right for all the people. The Education in Italy is divided into levels.The education is compulsory for children aged between 6 to 16 years. Before the age of 6, children can attend the pre-school. Although it is not compulsory, 90% of Italian children go to pre-schools (kindergarten).Day-care centres are available for children before the age of 3.
3COMPULSORY EDUCATION Scuola primaria (primary school) Age 5/ 6–11 Scuola secondaria di I grado (lower secondary school)Age 11–14Scuola secondaria di II grado (upper secondary school) only first two yearsAge 14–16
4Primary schoolPrimary school, scuola elementare, lasts for five years. The aim of primary school is to promote a basic cultural education and to encourage social interaction. Class sizes generally run about 20 or more pupils per class.At the beginning of the first year of each school level (elementary, middle, high school), pupils are split up into class groups which will be the same for several years. Pupils have lessons always in the same classroom, where the different teachers turn over.
5Lower Secondary Education The lower secondary school, is the Scuola Media (Middle School). It provides a common general education to students. It is compulsory and lasts for three years. The main objectives of this level of education is to offer to pupils both a wider knowledge of reality through the different school subjects and the opportunity to develop their personality.The curriculum includes: Italian, English, French (sometimes Spanish or German), History, Geography, Math, Physical Education, Technology, Music, Art, Information Technology, Science and Religion (students can choose to attend different activities instead of Religion).Students must pass an exam and obtain the Licenza di Scuola Media (the lower secondary school diploma) before moving up to Upper Secondary schools
6Upper Secondary Education High secondary school lasts five years, until students are eighteen or nineteen years old. The higher secondary schools are voluntary (except for the first two years). Students must take a choice about their education at an early age and choose the higher secondary schools they will attend.Students do an obligatory two years (biennio) of general studies followed by three years (triennio) of specialised education. At the end students take a "State Examination" to certificate the level achieved.Students can choose among these type of schools
7Classical High School (Liceo Classico) This lasts for five years and prepares the student for university level studies. Latin, Greek and Italian literature form an important part of the curriculum. During the last three years philosophy and history of art are also studied.Scientific High School (Liceo Scientifico)Lasts for five years with an emphasis on physics, chemistry and natural sciences. The student also continues to study Latin and one modern language
8Fine Arts High School (Liceo Artistico) Studies can last four to five years and prepare for university studies in painting, sculpture or architectureTeacher Training School (Istituto Socio-Psico-Pedagogico, formerly known as Istituto Magistrale)Studies last for five years and prepare future primary school teachers.
9Technical Institutes (Istituti Tecnici) Studies last five years and prepare for both university studies and for a vocation. There is a majority of students in technical schools that prepare students to work in a technical or administrative capacity in agriculture, industry or commerce.Professional Institutes (Istituti Professionali)These studies lead, in three or five years, to achievement of a vocational qualification.
10All these different types of schools lead to different types of degrees, called Diploma di Maturità (Maturità Classica, Scientifica, Linguistica, Artistica, Magistrale, Tecnica, etc). The Maturità is the minimum admission requirement to university studies, as well as to most part of non-university institutions of higher education.
11High EducationHigh education in Italy is provided by Universities, which can be state or private universities.Italian Universities will be asked to adopt a ‘3 cycle system’:The first cycle, 3 years in length, will be focused on a curriculum with a professional training bias and will culminate with the awarding of a first level degree called Laurea.The second cycle will last 2 years and will end with the awarding of a Laura SpecializzataResearch Doctorate, Dottorato di Ricerca. This is the third level or post-graduate academic qualification. The doctorate course lasts 3-4 years. Places are restricted to a limited number of students.
12Length of the school day The length of lessons is usually 60 minutes and.One teacher for each subject accompanies the same group of students for several yearsIn a school year of about 200 days from September to Juneschools open five or six days a week, full or half days, depending on the institution.Both primary and secondary schools offer from a minimum of 27 to 40 hours of teaching a week.
13Distribution of responsibilities Education in Italy has traditionally been centrally administered. Now a progressive process of decentralization transferred the administration and didactical decisions to the educational institutions, giving them responsibilities. This process is called autonomia.Education policy, however, remains centralized, and all schools - state, or private - must conform to national laws.The overall responsibility for education is in the hands of the Ministry of Education.
14Ministry of EducationLocal AuthoritiesSchool CouncilPrincipalInstitutionsTeachers' AssempblyClass council
15The Ministry of Education It has general responsibility for the supervision and coordination of all educational activities, and issues legislation to this effect.It issues general guidelines on curricula and and sets the final examinations at upper secondary levels.It promotes curriculum and syllabus changes It directly administers (through provincial offices) arrangements concerning the budget, the recruitment and mobility of staff.
16Local authoritiesThe Regions have their own legislative and administrative responsibilities within the general guidelines set out in state laws.they plan the establishment and construction of new schools or improvements to existing structures and administer funds received from the State for this purpose;Rhe Regions are also responsible for vocational education, training and guidance outside upper secondary schools.InstitutionsIn recent years, administrative powers have gradually been decentralized to individual schools and colleges. In each institution, administrative functions are carried out by the School Council (Consiglio di istituto) and the Principal (Preside).
17The School CouncilThe School Council is responsible for budgetary matters and for the organization and planning of non-educational school activities.It deliberates the purchase, renewal and maintenance of school equipment and teaching materials and decides on extracurricular and sports activities.The School Council is made up of representatives elected by teaching and non-teaching staff, parents and, in upper secondary schools, students.
18PrincipalsPrincipals are responsible for representing the school in the outside world and for management, supervision and discipline within the school.They coordinate all school activities and are responsible for compliance with legislative provisions.They implement the decisions of the School Council, organize the school internally, i.e. timetable, formation of classes, allocation of teachers, and decide on disciplinary measures for pupils.They are responsible for the recruitment of temporary teachers for less than one academic year.
19Teachers’ AssemblyThe Teachers' Assembly is composed of all the permanent and temporary teachers of each school (pre-school, primary school and middle school of the same comprehensive institution) and is chaired by the principal.It formulates teaching and educational plans for each school year, taking into account specific local requirements, national guidelines and state legislation, and decides on types of interdisciplinary coordination while respecting the freedom of teaching of each teacher.It also selects textbooks and teaching materials, in consultation with the Class Councils, and makes proposals concerning the organization of the school and in-service teacher training.
20The Class CouncilThe Class Council is composed of teachers of the same class and four elected parents' representatives, two of whom are replaced by two pupils' representatives at upper secondary level.They formulate educational and teaching plans for the class, check the progress of teaching and discipline in the class, organize supplementary activities and carry out the periodical and final assessment of pupils.
21Private EducationThe approval of the bill concerning the equal status of State and State-recognised schools (scuole paritarie) (March 2000) aims to provide measures to support parents of children and school-aged young people regardless of whether they are enrolled in a State school or attend a State-recognised institution, in order to ensure the right to education and promote the expansion, diversification and integration of education.
22TeachersTeachers in Primary School are generalists but assume responsibility for a subject area (linguistic, mathematic or anthropologic areas). They teach 22 hours per week + 2 hours of planning workIn the Secondary School teachers can teach at both lower secondary or at upper secondary level.They teach 18 hours per week + 80 hours per year of planning work and general meetings.All teachers in public schools are assigned to a certain school from a central system.
23They include the payment of overtime and additional responsibilities. Teachers generally work for 35 years; till the age of 60 for women and 65 for men.There is no difference between “new” and “old” teachers and there are no promotions.Length of service is the main factor taken into account in determining salary increases.The basic salary may be accompanied under certain special circumstances by various forms of additional earnings.They include the payment of overtime and additional responsibilities.