2 Blowout Preventer (BOP) The equipment (or valve) installed at the wellhead to contain wellbore pressure either in the annular space between the casing and the tubulars or in an open hole during drilling, completion, testing,or workover operations.Ram Blowout PreventerA valve that uses metal blocks with integral elastomer seals to seal off pressure on a wellbore with or without tubulars in the bore.
3 18-3/4 - 15,000 Ram BOPField replaceable seal seat for long service life and easy field repairMultiple position locking (MPL) automatically locks rams in a seal-off positionBOP can be equipped with blind shear, variable, pipe or casing rams for ultimate well control flexibilityCylinder liners field replaceableHinged bonnets for ease of ram accessFluid hinges removable for rapid simple seal replacementOne piece piston rod for strength and durability
4 18-3/4 15,000 Ram BOPBonnet bolts sized and arranged for reliable bonnet seal operation and proper bonnet stress distributionSide outletsAvailable pressure energized bonnet seal conversionStainless steel lined ring grooves for corrosion resistancePiston seals pressure energized lip seal for reliable seal operation
5 Operation Hydraulic Circuit Application of hydraulic pressure to the operating cylinders pushes the pistons inward or outward to close or open the ramsThe multiple position lock is an automatic lock, locking the rams in place after they are closed hydraulicallyOperating chambers are rated for 3000 psi continuous operation and have been tested to 4500 psiHydraulic closing pressures from 100 psi to 300 psi indicate satisfactory operation
6 Operation Hydraulic Circuit (continued) Hydraulic pressure applied to closing port initiates fluid flow in drilled passages in the BOP bodyFluid flows from the body through the fluid hinge to the bonnet hingeFluid then flows from the bonnet hinge through a drilled passage in the bonnet and exits between the cylinder and cylinder liner
7 Operation Hydraulic Circuit (continued) Fluid then acts on the backside of the rams closing themFluid from the opening sides is pushed out the porting in the bonnetFluid flows through a drilled passage in bonnet and into the bonnet hingeFluid then passes through the seal sub in the fluid hinge, through the drilled passage in the preventer body and out through the opening chamber port
8 Multiple Position Lock (MPL) Opening and closing controlled by uni-directional clutch mechanism, lock (overhauling) nut and lock (overhauling) screwThe clutch mechanism maintains nut and ram in locked positionThe clutch is disengaged by hydraulic pressure to open the ram
9 Multiple Position Lock (MPL) (continued) How the MPL WorksTail rod contains two types of threadsOne end - standard LH Acme threadOther end - fast lead 6-path helical threadMating nut fitted to the tail rodNut contained by two thrust bearings permitting rotation but preventing linear travelLinear motion of the tail rod during closing or opening causes nut to rotateFast lead, 6-path helical thread rotates the nut three turns per foot of travel
10 Multiple Position Lock (MPL) (continued) How the MPL WorksRear clutch plate and front clutchContact of rear clutch plate to front clutch plate maintained by spring forceRotation in the opening direction prevented by interlocking teethSloped angle of teeth permits rotation in closing directionHydraulic opening pressure acts on the cylinder liner to release locking mechanismCylinder liner moves back against transfer ringTransfer ring bears on the rear clutch plate disengaging it from the front clutch plateOpening pressure on the piston moves the ram to the open position as the lock nut and front clutch plate rotate freely
11 Multiple Position Lock (MPL) (continued) How the MPL WorksThe front clutch plate is bolted to the lock (overhauling) nut.Four rectangular keys in the rear clutch plate engage slots in the retainer plateAllows linear motion and prevents rotational motion of the rear clutch plateSprings are captured between rear clutch plate and retainer plateOpening forces on the piston rod held in check by the lock nutOpening force creates torque in the lock nutTorque is transmitted through the engaged teeth of front and rear clutch platesThe rear clutch plate is keyed to the retainer plateThe retainer plate is pinned to the cylinder head thus preventing rotation and locking the assembly
12 Multiple Position Lock (MPL) (continued) How the MPL WorksApplication of hydraulic opening pressure permits rams to openHydraulic pressure acting on the cylinder liner moves it back to disengage the clutchContinued application of opening pressure maintains the clutch unlocked and opens the rams
13 Multiple Position Lock (MPL) (continued) How the MPL WorksProvision for testing MPLTwo lockout devicesPrevent cylinder liner from disengaging clutchOpening pressure simulates opening forces applied to the ramVisual indication of position of lockouts provided
16 Engineering Data (continued) + Using Hydril BOP Thread Lubricant* using light machine oil
17 Engineering Data (continued) 18-3/4 - 15,000 Hydril ClampPressure-Tension-Bending CapabilityHydril clamp designed in accordance with procedures described in “Summary of Design Equations for Clamp Type Connectors” (1978 Rev.)
18 Engineering Data (continued) 18-3/4 - 15,000 PSI API FlangePressure-Tension-BendingAPI flange capability calculated by a modified formula given in Appendix H of API Spec. for Wellhead Equipment 6A, Mar
19 Packers and Seals Fixed Bore Pipe Rams Separate front packer and top sealTop seal feedable rubber energized during final seal off portion of the ram strokeFront packer has large volume of feedable rubber bonded to heavy anti-extrusion plates for repeated closures and pressure cyclesHy-temp front packers and top seals availableHy-temp seals require the ram block be modified for their useHy-temp front packers are secured to the ram block by bolts
20 Packers & Seals (continued) Ram Change Procedures1. Open (retract) the rams by applying opening pressure2. Disengage all bonnet bolts3. Manually swing both bonnets open and clear of BOP stack. Application of closing pressure to force open bonnet will damage piston rod (If the blowout preventer is not flanged to a wellhead or test stump, unbolt and open only one bonnet at a time to prevent blowout preventer from tipping over.)4. Extend the rams by applying closing pressure5. Remove the ram assembly by attaching an eyebolt in the hole provided and lift straight up6. Replace with new rams and remove lifting eye7. Retract ram back into bonnet compartment by applying opening pressure8. Inspect bonnet seal and seal area, lube with a light weight oil9. Clean and lubricate bonnet bolts with Hydril BOP thread lubricant10. Manually swing bonnets closed and insert bolts11. Hand tighten bolts starting with number one bolt, snugging bonnet to body. Then torque all bolts to 8500 ft-lbs*.Torque bolts beginning with the middle bolt on the off-hinge side, then the middle bolt on the hinge side. All other bolts may be torqued in any sequence.* Other lubricants require different torque values.
21 Packers & Seals (continued) Fixed Bore Pipe RamsFront Packer & Top Seal Change-outStandard Front Packers & Top Seals1. Insert screwdriver between upper seal and front packer and pry up to remove upper seal from its groove2. Insert two screwdrivers, one on either side of the front packer and work the packer outHy-Temp Front Packers and Top Seal1. Remove top seal by inserting screw drive between upper seal and front packer2. Remove two cotter pins from back of ram3. Remove screws from packer4. Remove packer
22 Packers & Seals (continued) Fixed Bore Pipe RamsFront Packer & Top Seal Change-out(continued)Regular Packers & Top Seal1. Insert packer into ram until seated2. Fit top seal in groove pins downHy-Temp Packers & Top Seal2. Bolt packer in with two bolts3. Insert cotter pins4. Fit top seal in its groove
23 Packers & Seals (continued) Shear RamsDesigned to shear drill pipe and seal off the wellboreMay be used as blind rams to seal off the open holeShear blade design minimizes required shearing loadDual V arrangement concentrates deforming forces so drill pipe is crimped on the shearing planeSharp rake angles impose additional tensile load to aid in pipe separationAfter shearing lateral T-seal seals on the horizontal sealing surface of the lower blade carrier
24 Packers & Seals (continued) Shear Ram AssemblyLower Blade Shear Ram1. Remove lower blade top seal2. Remove the two lower blade cap screws and the lower blade3. Remove the two anti-extrusion blocksUpper Blade Shear Ram1. Remove the two alignment pin set screws2. Remove the two alignment pins with a common screw driver3. Remove the three upper blade set screws from the top of the block4. Remove the four upper blade cap screws retaining the upper blade5. Remove the upper blade6. Remove the lateral T-Seal7. Remove the upper blade top seal8. Inspect all parts for wear and replace as required
25 Packers & Seals (continued) Shear Ram AssemblyLower Blade Shear Ram1. Prior to assembly, visually inspect all parts, apply a coating of non-petroleum based oil such as castor oil to all seals and seal grooves, and lubricate all threads with Hydril thread lubricant2. Install the lower blade on the ram block with the lower blade cap screws3. Install the two anti-extrusion blocks into the grooves of the ram block4. Install the lower blade top seal in the upper seal groove of the ram blockUpper Blade Shear Ram2. Install the upper blade top seal into the upper seal groove of the ram block3. Install the lateral T-seal. Insure that the lower T-section of the seal is properly fitted within its groove4. Install the upper blade with the four upper blade cap screws hand tight. Insure that the lateral T-seal is properly fitted between the upper blade and the ram block. Torque the cap screws.5. Install the three upper blade set screws into the top of the ram block. Torque the set screws6. Install the two alignment pins and hand tighten snug with a common screw driver7. Install the two alignment pin set screws and tighten snug
26 Packers & Seals (continued) Hydril Variable Rams (HVR)Designed to seal on a range of pipe diameters 3-1/2” - 5-1/2” /2” - 7”Interlocking I-beam inserts molded into the rubberThey confine the rubber within the packer and against the pipe to prevent extrusion of the sealing elementTop seal has large volume of feedable rubber for long and dependable service lifeInterchangeable with fixed rams or casing rams
27 Packers & Seals (continued) Hydril Variable RamDisassembly1. Remove top seal2. Remove two cotter pins3. Remove two bolts4. Remove front packerAssembly1. Insert front packer2. Screw in bolts3. Insert cotter pins4. Insert top seal
28 Packers & Seals (continued) Replaceable Upper Seal SeatReplaceable Metal SeatProvides seal surface for the ram top sealLock ring energized by 16 specially coated socket head set screws to retain the seatContains one seal and backup ring
29 Packers & Seals (continued) Bonnet SealsBonnet hinge sealBonnet seal May be converted to low-torque bonnet seal configurationPiston rod mud sealBonnet to piston rod seal
30 Packers & Seals (continued) Cylinder SealsCylinder liner to bonnet seal - O-ringCylinder to bonnet seal O-ringPiston seal - 3-piece bi-directional sealCylinder head sealCylinder head dirt sealLockout stem seal
31 Packers & Seals (continued) Hinge Pin SealsHinge pin seal - O-ringHinge pin thread seal - O-ringHinge pin bearing seal - O-ring
32 Packers & Seals (continued) Fluid Hinge SealsFluid hinge to bonnet hinge seals O-ringFluid hinge to body seals O-ringsSub to bonnet hinge seals O-ringsSub to energizer seals O-ringsEnergizer to fluid hinge seals - O-rings with backup rings
33 Maintenance Visually inspect the body and ring grooves Check all boltingCheck ring gasketsVisually inspectBonnet seal areasBonnet seal groovesRam boresSeal seatsPiston rodsRam blocksFront packersTop sealsBonnet seals
34 Maintenance (continued) Once a year inspectMPL bearingsBOP seal seat to rails (ram cavity floor)Minimum ram heightMaximum ram compartment height
35 Testing Hydraulically test with clear water Inspect all hydraulic connectionsSet appropriate size test tool in test stumpClose pipe rams on appropriate size pipe. Check for hydraulic leaksIncrease wellbore pressure to test pressure requiredLow pressureHigh pressureCheck for leaksContinue test until rams are testedUnless you intend to ruin your test mandrel, DO NOT test shear rams with pipe in the hole
36 Testing (continued)Lockout devices are manually operated and require either a 3/8” square drive or a 5/16” 12-point socket wrenchClose rams, visually check for leaks and reduce closing pressure to 100 psiCheck freedom of movement of lockout devices by alternately turning them clockwise then counter-clockwise about seven turnsEngage lockout devices. Rotate stem seven turns clockwise until snugBleed closing pressure to 0 psiApply opening pressure to 1500 psi in 500 psi increments, hold for three minutes. Check for leaks Visually observe rams for movement.
37 Testing (continued) MPL Lockout Test Reduce opening pressure to 0 psi Apply 100 psi closing pressureDisengage lockout devices by rotating stems counter clockwise about seven turns until snugGradually increase opening pressure from 0 until rams open
38 Disassembly MPL Cylinder Disassembly Standard mechanics tools required Remove ramsClose bonnets and snug up to the two center boltsApply opening pressureInstall 1” lifting eye in cylinder head (154) and support with a hoistRemove ten cylinder head cap screws (156) and remove cylinder headThe cylinder head seal (155), dirt seal (152), and rear lock nut bearing are now accessible
39 Disassembly (continued) MPL Cylinder Disassembly (continued)Remove lock nut clutch assembly by rotating the locating pin (158) counterclockwise. Identify it with its respective lock screw (144)Place clutch assembly on a work benchRemove eight screws (147) holding the front clutch plate (146) to lock nut (143). As the screws are removed, the rear clutch plate (148) will be pushed toward the front clutch plate (146) by the springs (150).
40 Disassembly (continued) MPL Cylinder Disassembly (continued)Remove the front clutch plate (146), the rear clutch plate (148), its keys (151) and key keeper (167) from lock nut (143)Remove the retainer plate (145) from the lock nut (143)The front lock nut bearing (149) may be removed from the lock nut
41 Disassembly (continued) MPL Cylinder Disassembly (continued)Support the cylinder (137) using a choker sling between the flange and the MPL lockout devices. Remove the twelve cylinder nuts (142) and slide the cylinder back over the piston and cylinder linerThe cylinder seal (133) and backup ring (166) are now exposedThe transfer ring (164) should be removed from inside the cylinderRemove both lockout glands (160) from the cylinder by rotating counterclockwiseSeparate the lockout segments (161) from the lockout stems (159) by rotating the stems clockwise (left handed threads) with the MPL lockout wrench (3/8” square drive)The lockout stem seals (162) and backup rings (163) are now exposed
42 Disassembly (continued) Fluid Hinge DisassemblyThe fluid hinge and bonnet hinges contain all of the seals concerned with the transfer of hydraulic fluid from the body to the bonnet and the bonnet to the bodyReduce all operating pressures to zeroRemove the two hex head cap screws (36) by counterclockwise rotationSlip the fluid hinge (24) assembly from between the bonnet hinges. As the fluid hinge assembly comes away from the body watch for the two fluid hinge to body O-rings (35)to prevent losing themThe seal sub assemblies contained in the fluid hinge are spring loaded.Separate the seal sub (25) and seal sub energizer (27) by pulling them apart2529283130403936273224351123213837221210
43 Disassembly (continued) Bonnet RemovalInsert two eyebolts in the top two holes of the bonnet NOTE: These holes are for lifting the bonnet assembly only and not the entire BOP.Attach a chain sling to support the bonnet weight, disengage all bonnet bolts, and remove the two hinge pins (61) by rotating from the load hinges. The hinge pin thread and bearing seals (62 and 63) are now exposed.Remove the four bonnet hinge cap screws (73) from each bonnet hinge. Slide the bonnet out off the location pins (75). The bonnet hinge O-ring (74) is now exposed.5655595857545253601416174756362
44 Disassembly (continued) 2529283130403936273224351123213837221210Bonnet DisassemblyThe load hinge thrust (38) and radial (37) bearings are removed by unscrewing the four load hinge cap screws.The hydraulic connections (10) are removed by unscrewing the four cap screws (12). The hydraulic connection O-ring is now exposed.
45 Disassembly (continued) Upper Seal Seat RemovalOpen both bonnetsRemove sixteen socket head set screws (5/16” hex key)Seat should be free to be lowered from its pocketCaution! Have the seat blocked from below to prevent injury should the seat drop
46 Assembly (continued) Load Hinge Installation The upper load hinge (21) is installed with the hinge pin bearing seat up. It is fitted over the two locating pins (22) pressed in the body.The lower load hinge (2) is installed over two locater pins (22) with the hinge pin bearing seat down.Install the four load hinge cap screws (23) on each hinge and tighten by clockwise rotationInstall the hinge pin thrust bearing (38)Install the hinge pin radial bearing (37)2529283130403936273224351123213837221210
47 Assembly (continued) Upper Seal Seat Installation Fit the lower seat to body O-ring (6) and backup ring (7) to the seal seat (4)Fit the lock ring (5) over the barrel of the seal seat (4) and seat it in its grooveScrew in sixteen set screws (9) until they just touch the lock ring (5)Fit the seat into the body, blocking it up in placeEngage the sixteen set screws (9) starting with one adjacent to the split in the lock (5), then work around the seat (4) expanding the lock ring into its groove in the bodyLock Ring 567Seal Seat 49
48 Assembly (continued)Check machine finishes on bonnet (52) and bonnet hinge (71) or 72) for smooth surfacesInstall O-ring (74) to finish machine side of bonnet hinge (71 or 72) (Lubricate O-ring)Attach bonnet hinge (71 or 72) to end of bonnet (52) with four bonnet hinge cap screws (73)5274737271
49 Assembly (continued) Bonnet Assembly Installation Install two lift eyes in bonnetInstall lift slingInstall bonnet onto BOP aligning the bonnet hinge with the load hingesInstall the upper and lower hinge pinsPosition the bonnet vertically by hinge pin adjustmentRaise by loosening the lower hinge pin and tightening the upper hinge pinLower by loosening the upper hinge pin and tightening the lower hinge pinOver-tightening may bind thrust washersBonnet position is correct when the guide pin on the bonnet enters the hole in the body smoothlyInstall bonnet bolts and seals
50 Assembly (continued) Fluid Hinge Installation Insert the seal sub into the sub-energizerInsert springs into fluid hingeInsert Seal sub/subenergizers into fluid hingeInstall fluid hinge to body O-ringsFit fluid hinge between bonnet hingesFit washers over hex head cap screws and insert cap screws into fluid hingeTorque cap screws to 250 ft-lbs
51 Assembly (continued) MPL Cylinder Assembly Inspect all machine surfaces to ensure all parts are clean and free from burrsInstall the piston seal (136) and piston wear rings (165) on the piston (135) as shown. The piston seal is composed of three separate parts. They may be immersed in hot water to increase their flexibility. The wear rings are split for ease of assembly and should be installed after the piston seal is in place.Piston Seal 136Piston Wear Ring165Piston 135
52 Assembly (continued) MPL Cylinder Assembly (continued) Place cylinder liner O-ring (140) and two backup rings (153) on the cylinder liner (139)Install cylinder liner (139) over piston (135) with the piston standing vertically on the T-slot end. Slide the cylinder liner partway onto the piston such that the piston is approximately 3” from the rear end of the cylinder liner.Install piston and cylinder liner assembly into bonnet
53 Assembly (continued)Install O-rings (162) and back-up rings (163) on lockout stems (159)Install lockout segments (161), stems (159) and gland nuts (160) into cylinder (137). Retract segments fully by turning lockout stems approximately 7 turns counter-clockwisePlace cylinder to bonnet O-ring (138) and backup ring (166) on cylinderInstall cylinder into recess of bonnet. Install nuts (142) and torque to specification 1280 ft-lbs
54 Assembly (continued) MPL Assembly (continued) Place the rear clutch plate (148) on a piece of cardboard or wood on a smooth table, clutch teeth down.Slip the key retainer (167) through the hole in each of the four clutch keys (151)Gently expand the key retainer and slip over the rear clutch plate outside diameter. Position each key in its recess on the clutch plate and allow the key retainer to contract into its groove on the outside diameter of the rear clutch plateInsert the clutch springs (150) in the rear clutch platePosition the retainer plate (145), locating pin (158) upward, over the clutch plate/springs/clutch keys/key retainer sub-assembly. Lower the retainer plate onto the sub-assembly insuring that each of the clutch keys engage their respective slots in the retainer platePlace the lock nut (143), large outside diameter end down, on a piece of card board or wood on a smooth table
55 Assembly (continued) MPL Assembly (continued) Place one lock nut bearing (149) on the lock nutHold together the retainer plate, and rear clutch plate sub-assembly and turn them over as a unit such that the rear clutch plate’s teeth face upward. Slide this assembly onto the lock nut and bearing. Position the assembly such that the locating pin on the retainer plate is over the edge of the table. This will allow the retainer plate to rest squarely on the lock nut bearing.Place the front clutch plate (146), teeth downward, on the lock nut assemblyThread two of the cap screws (147), 180° apart, through the front clutch plate and into the lock nutAlternate turning the two cap screws until the front clutch plate is snug against the lock nut.Install the remaining cap screws (147) and tighten to full torque value. The assembly will have to be held with a strap wrench to do this.
56 Assembly (continued) MPL Assembly (continued) Install lock nut/clutch assembly onto lock screw such that timing marks match. Timing mark is indicated by a “T” stamped on the end of the lock screw and on the end of the lock nutRotate the lock nut/clutch assembly clockwise until it shoulders in the cylinder. Mark the top (12 o-clock position). Rotate the lock nut/clutch assembly counterclockwise until it is located on the end of the lock screw. Disengage the clutch mechanism by depressing the rear clutch plate with two “C” clamps placed at points shown by the arrows. Align the marks on the lock nut and the locating pin on the retainer plate by rotating the retainer plate/rear clutch plate sub-assembly. Release the “C” clamps and rotate the lock nut/clutch assembly clockwise until it shoulders in the cylinder. The locating pin hole in cylinder head will now align with the locating pin in the retainer plate
57 Assembly (continued)Place the cylinder head O-ring (155) and the dirt seal (152) on the cylinder head (154)Install rear lock nut bearing (149) into the cylinder headInstall cylinder head. Install cylinder head cap screws (156) and torque to specificationsApply closing hydraulic pressure to extend piston rods
58 Assembly (continued) Extend the rams by applying closing pressure Remove the ram assembly by attaching an eyebolt in the hole provided and lift straight upReplace with new rams and remove lifting eyeRetract ram back in to bonnet compartment by applying opening pressureInspect bonnet seal and seal area, lube with a light weight oilClean and lubricate bonnet bolts with Hydril BOP thread lubricantManually swing bonnets closed and insert boltsHand tighten bolts starting with number one bolt, snugging bonnet to body. Then torque all bolts to 8500 ft-lbs.* Bolts denoted “N” may be torqued in any sequence*Other lubricants require different torque values
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