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Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, 2005 Foreign Direct Investment and Intra-Firm Trade CHAPTER 10.

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Presentation on theme: "Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, 2005 Foreign Direct Investment and Intra-Firm Trade CHAPTER 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, 2005 Foreign Direct Investment and Intra-Firm Trade CHAPTER 10

2 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, Introduction This chapter uses the Swedish firm Svenska Cellulosa Anktiebolaget (SCA) as an example Prominent European forest and paper products company Founded in 1929 through a merger of a number of smaller companies, some of them in existence since the 17 th century In the 1950s SCA experienced a downstream vertical integration into newsprint and liner production In the 1960s SCA began international production via foreign direct investment (FDI) in Denmark, France, Spain, and Germany  Now operates in 40 countries

3 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, Value Chains, Intangible Assets, and Internalization Michael Porter formalized a concept in his 1990 book, The Competitive Advantage of Nations, known as the value chain A simplified version of SCA’s value chain is depicted in Figure 10.1 SCA’s final product consists of corrugated boxes—produced in a four-stage process  Stage 1: A primary resource (forest) is transformed into a first intermediate product (timber) via logging  Stage 2: Timber is transformed into a second intermediate product (wood pulp) through a milling process  Stage 3: Pulp is transformed into liner  Stage 4: Liner is transformed into corrugated boxes At each stage of the production process value is added

4 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, Figure SCA’s Value Chain in Sweden

5 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, Value Chains, Intangible Assets, and Internalization SCA before the 1950s was a competitive pulp producer that specialized in timber and pulp production  Sold pulp to paper producers What might have explained this competitive success?  Corporate strategists typically point to the role of firm- specific assets in generating the competitiveness of firms Tangible assets  Forest resources Intangible assets  Specialized knowledge, patented products or processes, organizational abilities, or brand distinctiveness

6 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, SCA’s Forward Integration In the late 1950s SCA began a process of forward integration into liner production with the introduction of a new mill to produce this product in Sweden  SCA entered into competition with US-based liner producers but not into competition with any of its pulp consumers Why did SCA make this move?  Might experience an efficiency gain by spreading the costs incurred in acquiring its firm-specific assets (both tangible and intangible) over more value chain stages  Known as firm-level economies

7 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, SCA’s Forward Integration Firm-level economies is an insufficient explanation SCA always had the option of licensing its firm- specific assets to other liner producers  Rent its assets to a liner firm for a specific period of time Why did SCA choose not to exercise the licensing option?  Corporate strategists suggest that a firm’s decision to internalize the firm-specific asset market reflects market failure Has difficulty in selling its firm-specific assets  With tangible assets a firm might be reluctant to incur the dissemination risk  With intangible assets they may be inseparable from the firm’s human resources or organization

8 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, Multinational Value Networks and Foreign Direct Investment Assume SCA engaging in Stages 1, 2, and 3—producing timber, wood pulp, and liner in Sweden Lets consider two value chains—one in Sweden and one in France  Combination of the two value chains is a multinational value network In practice, more than two countries are usually involved  SCA can choose between backward and forward integration along its value chain in Sweden and to engage in FDI in France Acquired three box plants from its largest French pulp customer  Forward vertical integration, internationally internalizing the Stage 3 and Stage 4 markets Whenever a firm decides to operate processes in more than one country, it becomes a MNE

9 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, Figure SCA’s Multinational Value Network in Sweden and France

10 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, Multinational Value Networks and Foreign Direct Investment Figure 10.3 depicts SCA’s multinational value network once again Note something about this trade flow  Prior to SCA’s acquisition the French pulp customer, this was an arm’s-length transaction Transaction between two otherwise unrelated parties  After SCA’s FDI in France the trade flow took place within SCA itself Called intra-firm trade

11 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, Figure SCA’s Multinational Value Network after FDI in France

12 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, FDI Forward vertical FDI  Links wood pulp production in Sweden to the next stage in the value chain, liner production, in France Backward vertical FDI  If, instead, SCA had sourced timber in France for its wood pulp production in Sweden (unlikely!) Horizontal FDI  If SCA only engaged in wood pulp production in France, without any intra-firm trade

13 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, Table Industry and Firm Dimensions of Trade

14 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, SCA’s French FDI Strategy Viewed positively, and is a model for its internationalization throughout Western Europe By the end of 1970s, SCA either owned or part-owned liner and box factories in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Denmark By the end of the 1980s, it added factories in Belgium, the Netherlands, and Italy SCA now owns approximately 50 liner and box factories outside of Sweden and is Europe’s largest user of recycled paper  Involvement in recycling came in 1990 when SCA purchased the UK-based firm Reedpack Operated a recycled-fiber newsprint mill With this purchase SCA added a completely different value chain to its already-existing multinational value network This new value chain excluded the forest/pulp components of its historical value chain

15 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, Figure SCA’s Current Multinational Value Network

16 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, SCA’s Recycled Newsprint FDI Strategy Patterns of FDI can become complex and somewhat unrelated to the structure of the original, home-country value chain In 1994, SCA entered a joint venture with the European subsidiary of Mondi Paper (a South African firm) to build another newspaper recycling plant in Arlesford, UK  Plant is now one of the leading newspaper recycling facilities in the United Kingdom

17 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, The OLI Framework If SCA decides to engage in FDI in France, it most certainly will be at a disadvantage in some important areas vis-à-vis French firms  Will have to incur the additional costs of operating its business internationally including Increased transportation, communication, and coordination costs There must be some other advantages that offset the additional costs of conducting business internationally

18 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, The OLI Framework Dunning (1993) outlines three basic advantages  Ownership (O) advantages Ownership of tangible or intangible firm-specific assets SCA owns which provide it with a competitive edge over French firms Realize cost advantages over its rivals through firm-level economies  Location (L) advantages Could include input costs, transportation costs, import restraints, foreign government promotional policies, or access to foreign consumers associated with the foreign country, France  Internalization (I) advantages Explain why SCA chooses FDI over the licensing option Often relate to the efficiency seeking motivation for international production

19 Reinert/Windows on the World Economy, Table The OLI Framework


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