Presentation on theme: "Landfill Legislation Richard Campbell. INTRODUCTION Prior to the mid-1980's, waste disposal sites were: sites that no one wanted, ie they were holes."— Presentation transcript:
Landfill Legislation Richard Campbell
INTRODUCTION Prior to the mid-1980's, waste disposal sites were: sites that no one wanted, ie they were holes in the ground, swamps or derelict land. In the 1980s the environment and impact of past mis- management of soil, rock and groundwater started to be given greater attention.
INTRODUCTION 1980's and early 1990's: very little specific regulation which dictated how landfills should be investigated and designed. Legislation was in place that effectively required protection of soil and groundwater, there was little guidance on how the legislation should be interpreted or implemented..
INTRODUCTION In the mid-1990's to present considerable attention was given to the development of policy, regulation and guidance for contaminated land assessment and landfill design.
REGULATIONS & STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS Landfill design, operation, and closure in Victoria is currently influenced by the following key statutory and planning documents. Environment Protection Act (1970) State Environmental Protection Policies EPA Waste Management Policy (Siting, Design and Management of Landfills) December 2004 (the Waste Management Policy) The EPA Best Practice Environmental Management “Siting, Design, Operation and Rehabilitation of Landfills”, Publication 788, October EPA Information Bulletin “Rehabilitation of landfills exempt from licensing” Publication 674, November 1999.
WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS All municipalities are members of a Regional Waste Management Group. A RWMG must prepare a waste management plan for waste in its region. Regional Waste Plan Examines performance of existing facilities. Identifies future waste management needs Carries out economic analysis of options Evaluates potential landfill sites Provides for waste minimisation/resource recycling programs. Provides for litter control. EPA must reject applications that are not in accord with approved Waste Management Plans.
VICTORIAN REGIONAL WASTE MANAGEMENT GROUPS
ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT Specifies amount of levy payable (Schedule D) Levy for RWMGs, EcoRecycle and EPA Units are in dollars per tonne.
EPA Works Approvals The Environment Protection (Scheduled Premises and Exemptions) Regulations specify those premises that must obtain prior approval before construction commences (works approval) and must operate in accordance with licence conditions. Works approvals are not required for municipal landfills serving less than 500 people. Works approvals process (EPA Publication 375.2)- allows EPA to comment on draft design, refer to the agencies, DHS and responsible authorities and allow EPA to draft licence conditions. Licence not required if population served less <5000
ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT The Environment Protection Act empowers the various State Environmental Protection Policies (SEPPs) and Industrial Waste Management Plans (IWMPs). SEPPs are designed to provide a framework for protection of the beneficial uses of the various segments of the environment.
RELEVANT ENVIRONMENTAL SEGMENTS Surface Waters (leachate impacts, litter) Groundwaters (leachate impacts) Air (odour, dust, green house gas emissions)
RELEVANT ENVIRONMENTAL SEGMENTS
WATER POLICY SEPP (Waters of Victoria) Objectives: Protect beneficial uses of water. Methods: Perimeter interception drains Progressive Rehabilitation Sedimentation control Segregation of leachate from clean storm water Appropriate leachate storage, treatment and disposal facilities.
GROUNDWATER POLICY SEPP (Groundwaters of Victoria) Objectives: Protect beneficial uses of groundwater (drinking water, stock water, ecosystem, agriculture, parks and gardens, industrial water use, recreation). Note: Beneficial Uses are dependent on the salinity of the groundwater. Methods: Avoid waste contacting groundwater Ascertain potential impact on groundwater Use landfill liners (natural or synthetic). Extract leachate from landfill Minimise leachate generation Groundwater monitoring.
AIR POLICY SEPP (Air Quality Management) Objectives: Protect amenity (dust, odour) Protect environment and humans Reduce green house gases Methods: Buffers Restrict waste Gas extraction/monitoring Cover (frequency, quality & quantity).
LANDFILL GAS MIGRATION Waste GAS GROUNDWATER Cap Liner Buildings Gas Extraction ?
LANDFILL WMP Waste Management Policy (Siting, Design and Management of Landfills) Declared December 2004 Comply with objectives and indicators as per Air, Water & Groundwater SEPPs. Must meet objectives and required outcomes of BPEM* (Policy states that suggested measures of the BPEM should be used alternatives may be used: through approval by Authority, equivalence based outcomes). Clause 15 gives statutory authority to enforce the BPEM. Key Issues: Exclusion of new sites from areas of Segment A groundwater. Exclusion of new sites from areas < 2 metres separation between waste and groundwater
BEST PRACTICE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SITING, DESIGN, OPERATION AND REHABILITATION OF LANDFILLS EPA Publication 788 Recognises the waste hierarchy Provides siting guidance: physical and planning attributes. Community and conservation issues. Sets liner and cap performance criteria. Recognises key role of leachate of leachate colletion system Construction QA Guidance on operational practices. Guidance on Rehabilitation and Aftercare. Note: unlicensed landfills not necessarily covered by BPEM.
BEST PRACTICE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SITING, DESIGN, OPERATION AND REHABILITATION OF LANDFILLS The objectives and required outcomes are mandatory and reflect minimum requirements of policy. Suggested Measures are default means of achieving required outcomes. Where alternative means are put forward to achieve objectives then a risk based assessment will be required and approved by EPA.
Rehabilitation of Landfills Exempt from Licensing (Pub. No. 674) Relatively old document (Nov. 1999) It is a guideline only aimed at the rehabilitation and closure of small rural landfills (served population less than 5000 people).
BPEM CLASSIFICATION OF LANDFILLS Classification of landfills is based on wastes to be received.
BPEM SITING OF LANDFILLS There are 4 basic types of landfill recognised in the BPEM: Area Method (existing hole filled) Trench and fill method (hole excavated) mound method (above ground) valley fill Those in red are preferred by EPA.
BPEM BUFFER DISTANCES
GROUNDWATER PROTECTION Landfills should not be located in areas of potable groundwater (Segment A), groundwater recharge areas or in areas identified by the Water Act 1989 as a groundwater supply protection area, or below the regional water table.
SURFACEWATER PROTECTION Landfills should not be located in: Wetlands protected under Ramsar & JAMBA treaties. Marine and coastal reserves listed in schedule 4 of the National Parks Act Water Supply Catchments proclaimed under the Catchment and Land Protection Act. Land liable to flooding (1 in 100 yr).
BPEM DESIGN: LINER PERFORMANCE
BPEM DESIGN: LINER
BPEM LINER PERFORMANCE
CONSTRUCTION QUALITY ASSURANCE
BPEM CAP DESIGN
COMMON PROBLEMS Settlement Cracking
COMMON PROBLEMS Tree Roots
BPEM CAP DESIGN
COMPOSITE CAP LINER Compacted Clay Liner VFPE Liner Cover soils Active Gas Well Penetration ACTIVE GAS MANAGEMENT
PASSIVE GAS MANAGEMENT Gas Trench slotted pipe aggregate geotextile Gas Vent riser pipe concrete footing PASSIVE GAS VENT
BPEM AFTER CARE MANAGEMENT The owner of a landfill could be liable for any pollution event for the indefinite future. EPA may require a financial assurance to cover after care and long term liability.