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2 Click col mouse per avanzare music

3 Omar (r) From Hijrah to Khilaafah A.S. Hashim, MD From wikipedia.com

4 Sources of Reference Al Farooq, Omar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal al-Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings Tabqat ibn Sa'ad. al-Suyuti, The History of Khalifahs Madelung, Wilferd. The Succession to Muhammad. K. Y. Blankinship, The History of al-Tabari Early Khilaafah, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Ya’qub Khan Modern Islamic political thought, Hahmid Enayat, Encyclopedia Britannica al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah by ibn Kathir Armstrong,

5 In this Slide Show Al-Masjid Al-Nabawi The Brotherhood-in-Faith At Badr, Ohod, and the Ditch Confrontations At Hudaibiya, Khaybar, and the conquest of Mecca At Ghadeer Khum, then the Prophet's death and the Saqifa Ali and the oath of allegiance, and the aftermath of Saqifa During Abu Bakr’s Khilaafah Omar’s appointed as Khalifa by Abu Bakr

6 Brotherhood-in-Faith When Muhammad arrived in Medina, he paired off Each Meccan immigrant (Muhaajir) was to be with one of the Muslim residents of the city (Ansaari), He chose one exception: and that was to pair off himself with Ali, since both were from Mecca, as Brothers-in-Faith as Brothers-in-Faith was a unique distinction and honor for Ali. The Prophet joined Omar with either: Uwaim Ibn Sa’idah عويم بن ساعدة Or Utban Ibn Malik وقيل عتبان بن مالك Or Mu’adh Ibn Hafraa وقيل: معاذ بن عفراء making them Brothers-in-Faith. Later in Omar's reign as a Khalifa, he assigned his Brother-in-Faith the office of Chief Inspector of Accountability.

7 Al-Masjid al-Nabawi In Medina, Muhammad decided to construct a mosque immediately. A piece of land was chosen and the price of the land was paid for by Abu Bakr. Muslims constructed the mosque collectively The Prophet himself participated in the construction Omar also took part in the construction.

8 The Original Mosque The original mosque was an open-air building with a raised platform for the reading of the Quran. It was a rectangular enclosure of 98 × 115 ft, It was built with palm trunks and mud walls, and accessed through three doors: Bab Rahmah (Door of Mercy) to the south, Bab Jibril (Door of Gabriel) to the west and Bab al-Nisa' (Door of the Women) to the east. Inside, Muhammad created a shaded area to the south called the suffah and aligned the prayer space facing north towards Jerusalem. When the Qibla was changed, the direction was changed to face the Ka'ba in Mecca,

9 Replica of al-Masjid al-Nabawi

10 9 Nowadays: al-Masjid al-Nabawi

11 At Badr Encounter Omar was involved in the first battle Quraish imposed on the Muslims at the Battle of Badr, in 624 Hijrah Omar is known to have never had killed anyone of the enemy at any battle including Badr Omar was 43 years old at the time Abu Bakr did not participate in the fight neither, instead he was one of the guards of Muhammad's tent. Ali emerged as the new hero, since he is reputed to have finished 22 of Quraish fighters on his own, many being their leaders The 25 year old Ali became the dreaded fighter, the one to avoid in battle, who was dreaded by Quraish ever since

12 At Ohod Encounter In 625 Omar participated in the Battle of Ohod. In the second phase of the Battle when Khalid ibn Walid's Cavalry attacked Muslims at the rear changing the victory of Muslims to defeat, Rumors of Muhammad’s death were spread, many Muslim warriors were routed from the battle field, Omar too was initially routed, but hearing that Muhammad was still alive he joined to defend Muhammad to keep the Quraish army down the hill. The Prophet, being in grave danger, was actually protected by: Ali Al-Muqdad and few Others

13 Omar at the Trench Encounter Omar was present in: the Battle of the Trench and also in the struggle against Banu Quraidha. Amr ibn Abd Wid crossed the Ditch Amr, bragging, challenges the Muslims Neither Omar, nor any other Muslim took the challenge except Ali Ali ducks all Amr’s attempts Exhausted, Amr falls to the ground Ali on top of Amr, Ali offers Amr Islam Amr spits in the face of Ali, Ali finishes him off Quraish’s psychology is shattered

14 At Hudaibiya The treaty of Hudaibiya was such as to raise objections, especially of Omar. Omar objected over a clause of the treaty saying: that any citizen from Mecca entering Medina is eligible to be returned back to Mecca (if they want), while any Muslim from Medina entering Mecca is not eligible to be returned to the Muslims, even if Muhammad requested. After the signing of the treaty, there was still great fury among the Muslims because they did not like the stipulations of the treaty. Muhammad, binding onto the Islamic ethic (fulfill every promise), ordered that Muslims do exactly as the treaty says.

15 Omar and the Hudaibiya Treaty Omar, and a few Muslims, strongly objected to the treaty, and even went on as far as regarding that Muhammad's decision was wrong. In compliance to the treaty, Muslims did not enter Mecca for Omrah Many Muslims thereafter objected when Muhammad repeated three times to perform their (Haj) rites there and then. Muhammad insisted that Muslims had been victorious. Omar became worried the Prophet was displeased with him on account of his attitude. Shortly after, revelations came out in support of the Prophet: (Al-Fat’h, the victory: 48:1). (Al-Fat’h, the victory: 48:18-19) See next slide:

16 15 Al-Fat’h, the victory: 48:1 and 48:18-19 Verily We have granted thee a manifest Victory …. …… Allah's Good Pleasure was on the Believers when they swore Fealty to thee under the Tree: He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down Tranquility to them; and He rewarded them with a speedy Victory; And many gains will they acquire (besides): and Allah is Exalted in Power, Full of Wisdom. إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُبِينًا ….. ….. ….. لَقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنْزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا وَمَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً يَأْخُذُونَهَا ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

17 At Khaybar Omar was a part of the Muslim campaign to Khaybar. Abu Bakr was given the leadership to conquer the Fort, but he failed to do so Next day Omar was given the same opportunity but he also failed to conquer it Next day Ali was given the same opportunity and his was an outstanding success, he soundly defeated the resistance. The rest of the 8 forts were soon captured under Ali’s leadership

18 Fort of Khaybar’s Ruins Nowadays

19 At the Conquest of Mecca In 630 when Muslims rushed for the Conquest of Mecca, Omar was with them. Omar participated in the Battle of Hunain He also was present at the Siege of Ta'if. He was part of the Muslim force in the campaign of Tabuk under Muhammad's command It is reported that he gave half of his wealth for the preparation of this expedition. He also participated in the farewell Haj of Muhammad in 631.

20 Ghadeer Khum Following the Haj, the Prophet and multitude of others were on their way home, including Abu Bakr and Omar. Juhfa was an intersection between Mecca and Medina Near Juhfa, at an oasis called Ghadeer Khum, the Prophet delivered a speech The Prophet stood on an elevation to be seen by the massive crowd He took Ali with him, raising up both his and Ali’s arms He gave a long speech, the highlight was: Ali is Appointed as the Wali (in charge of the Ummah) after the Prophet

21 The Prophet’s Speech at Ghadeer Khum من كنت مولاه فهذا عليٌ مولاه اللهم وال من والاه وعاد من عاده وانصر من نصره واخذل من خذله وأدر الحق معه حيثما دار O' people, whosoever I am his leader, So is Ali to be his leader O' lord, uphold him who upholds Ali, And antagonize him who antagonizes Ali, And support him who supports Ali, And impede him who impedes Ali, And let the truth be with Ali wherever he goes

22 After the Speech in Ghadeer Khum Omar came forward congratulating Ali saying: Omar came forward congratulating Ali saying: بخٍّ بخٍّ لكَ يا علي، أصبَحتَ مولايَ ومولى كُلّ مؤمنٍ ومؤمنه بخٍّ بخٍّ لكَ يا علي، أصبَحتَ مولايَ ومولى كُلّ مؤمنٍ ومؤمنه Congratulations, congratulations, O' Ali! You have become my leader And the leader of every believer, man or woman. Abu Bakr did likewise The multitude of others came to congratulate Ali before heading home

23 Ghadeer Khum Nowadays

24 U'sama Expedition The Prophet directed both Abu Bakr and Omar to be in the expedition of U'sama. The Prophet then became feverish. Both Abu Bakr and Omar were to be under U'sama leadership though U’sama was much younger than they. U'sama was 18, and the Prophet chose him to lead the expedition because of his capacity and outstanding leadership Neither Abu Bakr nor Omar joined U'sama expedition, they did not listen to the Prophet, they lingered instead in Medina, Shi'a claim that both Abu Bakr and Omar figured the end of Muhammad was near, so they waited for the sake of the Khilaafah after the Prophet.

25 At the Death Bed of the Prophet At the sick bed of the Prophet: Omar was among those in the room. Upon hearing that the Prophet had requested someone to write a Will for him, Omar hastily commanded: إنَّ النبي غلبه الوجع، وعندنا كتاب الله حَسْبُنا Allah's Messenger is overwhelmed by his sickness: Suffice it we have Allah's book with us. The Prophet dismissed everyone from his room Thus a Will was effectively prevented

26 The Death of the Prophet When Muhammad died Muslims gathered in Al-Masjid al-Nabawi with sobs and cries and a feeling of despondency. Abu Bakr came from his house at al-Sunh (suburb of Medina) on a horse. He dismounted and entered the Prophet's Mosque, but did not speak to anyone until he entered upon A’isha. In Sunni accounts he went straight to Muhammad Who was covered with Yemeni cloth. He then uncovered Muhammad's face and bowed over him and kissed him and wept, Ali and a few of Benu Hashim were there in charge. Theirs was the duty and privilege to conduct the funeral rites and the internment of the body.

27 In the Masjid: The Death of the Prophet Omar was making a speech to the people with an oath: “By Allah, he is not dead but has gone to his Lord as Musa ibn Imraan went and remained hidden from his people for forty days. Musa returned after it was said that he had died. By Allah, the Messenger of Allah will come back and he will cut off the hands and legs of those who claim his death." Abu Bakr arrived and said, Sit down, O Omar! But Omar refused to sit down. However, the people came to Abu Bakr and left Omar alone. Abu Bakr confirmed the death of the Prophet.

28 The Death of the Prophet Muhammad died on 8 June 632. Omar was full of grief upon hearing the news, Omar, the devoted disciple, could not accept the reality that the "Messenger of God" has died. It is said that Omar promised to strike the head of any man who would say that Muhammad died. At this point Abu Bakr is reported to have come out to the Muslim community and gave his speech which included: "Whoever worshipped Muhammad, let them know that Muhammad is dead, and whoever worshipped Allah, let them know that Allah never dies." Abu Bakr then recited verses from the Quran

29 Saqifa of Benu Sa’idaسقيفة بني ساعدة‎ After Muhammad's death leaders of the Ansaar met in a resting place called Saqifa, There was a total of 6 Saqifas in Medina, the one Al- Ansaar met in is called Saqifa of Benu Sa’ida سقيفة بني ساعدة‎. The Ansaars met to discuss whom they would support as their new leader after the Prophet, as if they had forgotten about Ghadeer Khum. There were many arguments and high emotions. All this and the Prophet has not been given the funeral rites as of yet! The news of the meeting was given to Abu Bakr and Omar

30 At Saqifa of Benu Sa’ida In this highly charged atmosphere at the Saqifa, Abu Bakr argued that the Prophet had already said the Khalifas after him are from Quraish Thus the Ansaars were excluded The Ansaars consisted of Aus and Khazraj Eventually the Aus members voted for Abu Bakr The Khazraj under their leader Sa’ad Ibn Abada سعد بن عبادة refused him. Sa’ad Ibn Abada even left Medina to Syria, refusing to give his pledge, where it is said he died mysteriously (apparently murdered) At the same time Ali and many others of Benu Hashim were busy preparing for the funeral rites of the Prophet (pbuh) The needs of the moment was first and foremost to take care of the Prophet (pbuh).

31 The Shi’a Attitude of the Saqifa Shi’a criticize Abu Bakr and Omar for forsaking the funeral of Muhammad to attend the political gathering, They believe that Muhammad had already appointed Ali in his lifetime as his successor (Ghadeer Khum). This view portrays Abu Bakr and Omar as plotters in a political coup against Ali. Madelung (in his book: Succession to Muhammad) portrays Abu Bakr and Omar as political opportunists whose character as the founders of Sunni Islam has been extensively embellished by subsequent kings and emperors (Khalifas) making it difficult to openly criticize him

32 The Architect of the Khilaafah Omar's political genius first manifested as the architect of the Khilaafah after Muhammad died in 8 June. While the funeral of Muhammad was being arranged: a group of Muhammad's followers, the Ansaar, organized a meeting on the outskirts of the city, effectively locking out the Muhaajirs (The Emigrants) including Omar. Omar found out about this meeting at Saqifa Benu Sa’idah, and taking with him two other Muhaajirs, Abu Bakr and Abu Ubaida, They proceeded to the meeting, presumably to head off the Ansaars’ plans for political domination. Arriving at the meeting Omar was faced with a unified community of tribes from the Ansaar who refused to accept the leadership of the Muhaajirs.

33 The Architect of the Khilaafah However Omar was undeterred in his belief the Khilaafah should be under the control of the Muhajiroon. Despite the Khazraj being in disagreement, after strained negotiations lasting up to many hours, Omar: Brilliantly divided the Ansaar (who were united) into their old warring factions of Aus and Khazraj tribes, and Then Omar resolved the divisions by placing his hand on that of Abu Bakr as a unity candidate for those gathered in the Saqifa, Most those gathered at the Saqifa followed suit, with the exception of the Khazraj tribe and their leader, Sa‘ad ibn Ubadah. The Khazraj tribe is said to have posed no significant threat: as there were sufficient men of war from the Medina tribes to immediately organize them into a military bodyguard for Abu Bakr.

34 33 Wilferd Madelung Comments The creation of the Khilaafah was one of Omar's most enduring legacies, its significance to world history is hard to overestimate. Dr. Wilferd Madelung (in his book: the Succession to Muhammad) summarizing Omar's contribution: Omar judged the outcome of the Saqifa to be a falta فلته “a precipitate and ill-considered deal” because: of the absence of most of the prominent Muhajiroon, including the Prophet's own family and clan, whose participation was vital for any legitimate consultation (Shura, mushwara). It was, (Omar warned the community), to be no precedent for the future. Yet Omar also defended the outcome, claiming that the Muslims were longing for Abu Bakr as for no one else.

35 Wilferd Madelung Comments Omar apologized, moreover, that the Muhajiroon present were forced to press for an immediate oath of allegiance since the Ansaar could not have been trusted to wait for a legitimate consultation and might have proceeded to elect one of their own after the departure of the Meccans. Another reason for Omar to censure the Saqifa meeting as a falta فلته was no doubt its turbulent and undignified end, as he and his followers jumped upon the sick Khazraji leader Sa'd bin Ubada in order to teach him a lesson, if not to kill him, for daring to challenge the sole right of Quraish to rule.

36 Wilferd Madelung Comments This violent break-up of the meeting indicates, moreover, that the Ansaar were not all swayed by the wisdom and eloquence of Abu Bakr's speech nor to have accepted him as the best choice for the succession, as suggested by Caetani. There would have been no sense in beating up the Khazraji chief, Sa’ad Ibn Ubada, if everybody had come around to swearing allegiance to Omar's candidate. Therefore, a substantial number of the Ansaar, presumably of Khazraj in particular, must have refused to follow the lead of the Muhajireen.

37 The Events Afterwards According to various sources, (especially the Shi'a) and some western scholars: Omar and Abu Bakr had mounted a political coup against Ali at the Saqifa According to one version of narrations in primary sources, Omar and Abu Bakr are also said to have used force to secure the allegiance from Ali and his party. It has been reported that after Ali's refusal to pay homage, Abu Bakr sent Omar with an armed contingent to Fatima’s house where Ali and his supporters are said to have gathered. Omar is reported to have threatened those in the House that unless Ali succumbed to Abu Bakr, he would set the House on fire, with its inhabitants ablaze, and under these circumstances Ali was forced to capitulate.

38 Shi’a Version of the Events This version of events, fully accepted by Shi'a scholars, is generally rejected by Sunni scholars who in view of other reports in their literature believe that Ali gave oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr though reminding him that the Khilaafah was his, while others believe that Ali was reluctant to swear allegiance to Abu Bakr and gave his allegiance six months later after the death of his wife Fatima. Western scholars tend to agree that Ali believed he had a clear mandate to politically succeed Muhammad, but offer differing views as to the extent of use of force by Omar in an attempt to intimidate Ali and his supporters, for instance, Dr. Wilferd Madelung in his book The Succession to Muhammad, discounts the possibility of use of force and argues that:

39 Dr. Wilferd Madelung Argues: Isolated reports of use of force against Ali and Benu Hashim (who unanimously refused to swear allegiance) for six months are probably to be discounted. Abu Bakr no doubt was wise enough to: Restrain Omar from any violence against them, Well realizing that this would inevitably provoke the sense of solidarity of majority of Abdul Manaaf, whose acquiescence he needed. Abu Bakr’s policy was rather not isolating Benu Hashim as far as possible.

40 Omar and Initiation of Khilaafah The Prophet dies 1. The Prophet dies 2. Saqifa of Benu Sa’ida 3. Argue with Ansaar 4. Give Allegiance to Abu Bakr 5. Ali preparing funeral rites 6. Khilaafah announced in Mosque

41 Omar during Abu Bakr's Era During Abu Bakr's short reign as Khalifa he was mostly occupied with Ridda wars, Omar was one of his chief advisers and secretary. Omar along with Khalid ibn Walid, probably was the architect and main strategist behind the collapse of rebellion in Arabia. Though at the beginning Omar was opposing the military operations against the rebel tribes: In hope of their support in case of invasion by the Romans or Persians Later, however, Omar seems to agree with Abu Bakr's warlike strategies to crush rebellion. By late 632 Khalid ibn Walid had successfully subdued the rebels. Later during his own reign, Omar would mostly adopt the policy of avoiding wars and consolidating his power in the conquered land rather than expanding his empire through continuous warfare.

42 41 Omar and Khalid Prior to Battle of Yamama, Omar pressured Abu Bakr to remove Khalid, who had killed Malik ibn Nuwayrah مالك بن نويره, even though Malik proclaimed his Islam. But Khalid killed him anyway. Khalid killed Malik because he was after his wife Layla, a renowned beauty in Arabia. In Islam, in such circumstance, a women is to wait for a few months before she can marry again. This is so in case she was pregnant through her previous husband. But Khalid married her the same night he killed her husband ─No waiting. While Abu Bakr refused to accept Omar's opinion, Omar continued insisting for Khalid’s removal even after Khalid's conquest of Iraq. This became a major issue between Abu Bakr and Omar and a spacious chapter in Islamic history.

43 42 The Appointment Abu Bakr appointed Omar as his successor prior to his death in 634. He was confirmed in the office thereafter. Due to his strict and autocratic nature, Omar was not a very popular figure among the notables of Medina and members of Majlis al Shura, Accordingly succession of Omar was initially discouraged by high ranking companions of Abu Bakr. Nevertheless, Abu Bakr decided to make Omar his successor. Omar, still was well known for his extraordinary will power, Intelligence and political astuteness, impartiality, and justice and care for poor and underprivileged people.

44 Omar was Known for: Intelligence Political astuteness Impartiality, and justice Care for poor and underprivileged Extraordinary will power

45 The Appointment Abu Bakr is reported to have said to the high- ranking advisers: Omar's strictness was there because of my softness But when the weight of Khilaafah is over his shoulders he will remain no longer strict. If I will be asked by God to whom I have appointed my successor, I will tell him that I have appointed the best man among your men. Abu Bakr was fully aware of Omar's power and ability to succeed him.

46 The Appointment Succession of Omar in Khilaafah was thus not as troublesome as any of the others. His succession was perhaps one of the smoothest transitions to power from one authority to another in the Muslim lands. It was an appointment, it was a strategic decision. Abu Bakr before his death called Uthman to write his will in which he declared Omar his successor. In his will he instructed Omar to continue the conquests on Iraq and Syrian fronts. Abu Bakr's decision would prove to be crucial in the strengthening of the nascent Islamic empire.

47 In Conclusion Omar from the Hijrah to his Khilaafah Omar present at Badr, Ohod, the Ditch, and others At Hudaibiya then Khaybar At Hudaibiya then Khaybar At the death bed of the Prophet At the death bed of the Prophet The architect at Saqifa of Benu Sa’ida The architect at Saqifa of Benu Sa’ida Succeeds in shifting Khilaafah to Muhajiroon Succeeds in shifting Khilaafah to Muhajiroon Circumstances of the Saqifa and aftermath Circumstances of the Saqifa and aftermath Appointment as Khalifa after Abu Bakr Appointment as Khalifa after Abu Bakr

48 Finally we quote the Quran: By the Token of Time Verily Man is in loss, Except those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience. بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالْعَصْرِ إِنَّ اِلانسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ إِلا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

49 THANK YOU Be in Allah’s Care Dr. A.S. Hashim


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