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EXECUTIVE BRANCH— PRESIDENT & BUREAUCRACY Perspectives –Theory –Declaration of Independence –Separation of Powers Constitutional Convention Article II.

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Presentation on theme: "EXECUTIVE BRANCH— PRESIDENT & BUREAUCRACY Perspectives –Theory –Declaration of Independence –Separation of Powers Constitutional Convention Article II."— Presentation transcript:

1 EXECUTIVE BRANCH— PRESIDENT & BUREAUCRACY Perspectives –Theory –Declaration of Independence –Separation of Powers Constitutional Convention Article II

2 ARISTOTLE Government must Make laws Execute laws Judge laws Can be done by one, few, many

3 Declaration of Independence King George III performs all three functions Refuses petitions to redress grievances King’s character marked by acts “which may define a Tyrant”

4 SEPARATION OF POWERS Guiding principle of American governments “Publius,” No. 47 Accumulation of legislative, executive, judicial powers in same hands is “very definition of tyranny”

5 Philadelphia Convention Greatest focus on representation—states or people? No clear theory of executive power

6 Virginia Plan National executive—single or plural??? Elected by legislature Take over executive functions performed by Congress under Articles One seven-year term; not re-eligible Member of Council of Revision; negative legislation before becoming law

7 New Jersey Plan Plural executive Elected by legislature Ineligible for second term Removable at request of Congress on application of majority state governors To direct military operations but none to directly command troops

8 Hamilton Plan One person to “execute laws” Elected by electors from districts Life tenure, but impeachable Absolute veto Have “direction of war when authorized or begun” Sole authority to appoint heads of finance, war, foreign affairs Treaty, other appointment power with Senate’s “advice and approbation” To appoint state governors

9 James Wilson (Pa.) Characteristics of good executive: Energy Dispatch [efficiency] Responsibility

10 Roger Sherman (Ct.) Characteristic of good executive: Carry out will of legislative branch

11 Gouverneur Morris (Pa.) Characteristic of good executive: Protect people from legislative branch

12 What we want from executive affects... How many chief executives How chief executive best selected Term of office Executive powers Limitations on executive

13 Compromises Term of office Re-eligibility Selection Qualified veto power Impeachment

14 Article II (executive powers) “Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy...when called into the actual Service of the United States” Require opinions of principal officers in executive Departments Grant reprieves/pardons for offenses against U.S. (except impeachment) Make treaties with Advice/Consent of Senate Nominate/appoint Ambassadors/public ministers, Consuls, S.C. Judges with Advice/Consent of Senate Fill vacancies during Senate recess Convene/adjourn Congress or either house

15 Article I (executive powers) Veto –With statement of objections –Qualified

16 Responsibilities State of the Union address Recommend to Congress “Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient” Receive Ambassadors/public Ministers Take Care Laws be faithfully executed Commission Officers of U.S. Be subject re re-election every 4 years (changed by 22d A.) Take oath

17 Presidential oath “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

18 Concerns about executive power...

19 Pierce Butler (S.C.) “It had been observed that in all countries the executive power is in a constant course of increase.”

20 Gouverneur Morris (Pa.) “The love of fame is the great spring to noble and illustrious actions. Shut the civil road to glory, and he may be compelled to seek it by the sword.”

21 Edmund Randolph (Va.) Single executive is “foetus of monarchy”

22 Charles Pinckney (S.C.) If President has power over war and peace, U.S. will have worst kind of monarchy: elective one

23 George Mason (Va.) “We are not indeed constituting a British government, but a more dangerous monarchy—an elective one... Do gentlemen mean to pave the way to hereditary monarchy?”

24 “Philadelphiensis” President as “military king” “Who can deny but the president general will be a king to all intents and purposes, and one of the most dangerous kind too--a king elected to command a standing army.”

25 So...what are the President’s powers? Constitutional “white space” E.g., signing statements Constitution: must issue when vetoes Since Monroe, have used when signing Dramatic increase since Reagan »President Bush: includes frequent references to “unitary executive”

26 Unitary Theory of the President During war, the President cannot be bound by law. Reasons: Commander in chief Inherent power of the President

27 Examples... ”The centralization of authority in the president alone is particularly crucial in matters of national defense, war, and foreign policy, where a unitary executive can evaluate threats, consider policy choices, and mobilize national resources with a speed and energy that is far superior to any other branch.” John Yoo “The president has not just some executive powers, but the executive power—the whole thing.” Samuel Alito

28 JOHN DEAN (2002) “... “[E]ach national crisis has left the nation a little less democratic than before... [I]f a future attack comes, and is devastating, the pressure to resort to constitutional dictatorship may be irresistible.”

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