Presentation on theme: "President and the Executive Branch"— Presentation transcript:
1President and the Executive Branch Imperial threat or imperiled public servantThis presentation is the property of Dr. Kevin Parsneau for use by him and his current students. No other person may use or reprint without his permission.
2Introduction to the Presidency Presidents are frequently called “the most powerful man in the world.” What do we expect of presidents?What are the President’s powers and can presidents live up to our expectations?Why are some presidents more powerful than others?Some of the framers of the Constitution were concerned that presidents would be too powerful, while others were concerned that presidents would not have enough power. Are modern presidents too powerful or not powerful enough?
3Presidential Power What do we expect presidents to do? What’s in the Constitution to get the job done?
4Presidential PowerThe President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment. (Article II Section 2 Clause 1)
5Presidential PowerEvery Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it (Article I Section 7 Clause 2)
6Presidential PowerHe shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient… (Article II Section 2 Clause 3)
7Stewardship Theory of the President: President as a "steward of the people" should take whatever action necessary for the public good unless expressly forbidden by law or the Constitution.
8Categories of Presidential Power Expressed powers—powers specifically given in the ConstitutionDelegated powers—constitutional powers that one branch of government has but it is exercised by another branchInherent Powers—powers that can be inferred from the Constitution but not expressly in it
9Constitutional Powers of the President Veto (legislative power)Commander in Chief of the MilitaryChief ExecutiveReprieves and pardonsTreatiesAppoint Federal JudgesState of the Union Address
10The Framer’s Intent“The President is also to be authorized to receive ambassadors and other public ministers. This, though it has been a rich theme of declamation, is more a matter of dignity than of authority. It is a circumstance which will be without consequence in the administration of the government…. There is no comparison between the intended power of the President and the actual power of the British sovereign. The one can perform alone what the other can only do with the concurrence of the legislative branch.” –Alexander Hamilton Federalist #69
11The Framer’s Intent“The inquiry then is--what department of the Government of the U(nited) States is the proper one to make a declaration of Neutrality in the cases in which the engagements of the Nation permit and its interests require such a declaration… It must then of necessity belong to the Executive Department to exercise the function in Question--when a proper case for the exercise of it occurs. It appears to be connected with that department in various capacities, as the organ of intercourse between the Nation and foreign Nations” --Alexander Hamilton, Pacificus, no. 1, 29 June 1793
12The Framer’s Intent“The natural province of the executive magistrate is to execute the law, as that of the legislature is to make laws. All his acts therefore must presuppose the existence of laws to be executed…. To say then that the power to make treaties, which are confessedly laws, belong naturally to the department which executes the laws, is to say, that the executive department naturally includes legislative power. In theory this is an absurdity– in practice a tyranny.” --James Madison, Helvidus, no. 1, August 1793
13Can “intent” to tell us presidential powers? There was disagreement among the framers of the Constitution.Madison and Jefferson disagreed with Hamilton and WashingtonHamilton disagreed with himself at different timesThere may be no universal, best interpretation.Presidential powers will be political defined by presidents in conflict with others.
14Roles of the President Head of State Head of Government Head of Party Chief Diplomat
15Other sources of presidential power Persuasion and BargainingPublic PresidencyUnitary ActorAdministrative PresidencyCongressional SupportForeign PolicyWar Powers
17Public Presidency “Bully Pulpit” Set the Public Agenda Mandate HoneymoonPresidential ApprovalRally “Around the Flag” Effect
18President and Congress Unified GovernmentDivided GovernmentPresidential Coattails
19War Powers Act (1973) President may commit armed forces Declaration of warSpecific statutory authorizationNational emergency (attack on the U.S. , its territories, possessions or armed forces)Must consult with Congress “at every possible instance”60-Day Clock for Reauthorization
20Does the President have too much power? Have we moved away from “checks and balances”?Is it good that the President is the center of attention and action?Would it be better for it to be otherwise?What is the alternative in the modern political environment?