Presentation on theme: "Outline Ethylene hormone signaling"— Presentation transcript:
1Outline Ethylene hormone signaling Introduction to the ethylene hormone(effects, history, significance)Genetic dissection of the ethylene signaling pathway (this provides for the genetic engineering of many responses to ethylene)Addressing the food crisis: recent ethylene discoveries in riceYesterday’s lecture did not go into what happens at the molecular and cellular level. Today, using Ethylene as an example of a signal and the very significant biotechnological aspects that can be manipulated.
2Plant growth, development, and survival depend on appropriate responses to a diverse array of constantly fluctuating external and internal signals
4Ethylene Biosynthesis WoundingFloodingDrought stressBiotic stressHeat stressCold stressOxidative stressOsmotic stressMechanical stressUV stressPathogen attackSTRESS hormoneIt has been shown that ethylene is produced from essentially all parts of higher plants, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, tubers, and seedlings.Elucidated yrs agoEthylene production is regulated by a variety of developmental and environmental factors. During the life of the plant, ethylene production is induced during certain stages of growth such as germination, ripening of fruits, abscission of leaves, and senescence of flowers. Ethylene production can also be induced by a variety of external aspects such as mechanical wounding, environmental stresses, and certain chemicals including auxin and other regulatorsEthylene has it’s hands in everything
5Ethylene responses Developmental processes Fruit ripening - ethylene is essentialPromotion of seed germinationRoot initiationBud dormancy releaseInhibition/promotion of floweringSex shifts in flowersSenescence of leaves, flowersResponses to abiotic and biotic stress Abscission of leaves, flowers, fruitsEpinasty of leavesInhibition/promotion of cell division/elongationAltered geotropism in roots, stemsInduction of phytoalexins/disease resistanceAerenchyma formationKNOWN AS STRESS HORMONE Pleiotropic effects.What is actually caused by the gas may depend on the tissue affected as well as environmental conditions.In flooding, root suffers from lack of oxygen, or anoxia, which leads to the synthesis of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). ACC is transported upwards in the plant and then oxidized in leaves. The product, the ethylene causes epinasty of the leaves.
6Historical background Ethylene has been used (unwittingly) throughout historyGashing promotes ripening in figs (4 days later)Wood burning fires promote synchronous flowering in pineapple
7Historical background Illuminating gas caused detrimental effectsPlants around the beltway
8Historical background 1901 Neljubov - ethylene is the biologically active agent in illuminating gas1934 Gane - ethylene is produced by plants
9Apple slices inducing ripening of persimmons 8 days in bag with apple slicesControls, 8 days outside of bag
10Wounding induces ethylene production Ethylene causes senescenceCan block ethylene receptors with silver thiosulfate
11Ethylene has far-reaching consequences for agriculture and horticulture Transport and storage of fruits and vegetables requires ethylene controlFlood-tolerant rice created by expression of ethylene response factor genes“One bad apple spoils the whole bunch…”
13Outline Ethylene hormone signaling Introduction to the ethylene hormone(effects, history, significance)Genetic dissection of the ethylene signaling pathway (this provides for the genetic engineering of many responses to ethylene)Addressing the food crisis: recent ethylene discoveries in rice
14“Genetic Dissection” of the Ethylene Signaling Pathway (Question: What does this mean?)
15? Signal transduction Response Signal plant cell The basic problem. Term coined in Gained popularity in 1980’s.
16Example of signaling pathway activated by an extracellular signal Signal transduction - the process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Signal transduction processes typically involve an ordered sequence of biochemical reactions or other responses within the cell, resulting in a signal transduction pathway
17QUESTIONS WHAT CONSTITUTES AN UNDERSTANDING OF SIGNALING PATHWAYS? HOW CAN RESEARCHERS ELUCIDATE SIGNALING PATHWAYS?
18Frequency of Signal Transduction Publications in the Past 30 Years The total number of papers published per year since 1977 containing the term “signal transduction” in their title or abstract. These figures are from analysis of papers in the MEDLINE database. The total published since Jan 1, 1977-Dec 31, 2007 is 48,377, of which 11,211 are reviews.
19Degradation by the 26S proteasome via SCFEBF1/2 Cu2+N--CGolgiRAN1HHC=C=HHNRTE1-C-N-ERER/GolgiCu2+Cu2+Cu2+N-ETR1KDC-CTR1-CDegradation by26S proteasomeCytoplasmETP1/2?N-EIN2-CEIN5/XRN4NucleusEBF1/2EIN3/EIL1Degradation by the 26S proteasome via SCFEBF1/2EBSERF1GCCC2H4 Responsive GeneKendrick and Chang (2008) Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 11:
20How to genetically dissect a pathway/process Identify a phenotype that is specific to the process you are interested inDesign appropriate screen for isolating mutants based on this phenotypeCarry out genetic analysis of the mutant (e.g., epistasis)Clone the corresponding gene by map-based cloningInvestigate function at cell biological and biochemical levels
21Arabidopsis thaliana The life cycle is short--about 6 weeks from germination to seed maturation.Seed production is prolific and theplant is easily cultivated in restricted space.Self-fertilizing, but can also be out-crossedby hand.Relatively small genome (1.5 MB), completely sequencedExtensive genetic and physical maps of all 5 chromosomesA large number of mutant lines and genomic resources is available - Mutants are available in nearly every geneGenetic transformation is simple using Agrobacterium tumefaciensExtensive databases for gene expression analyses, multinational projects, etc.Attracted geneticists. Previously crop plants - slow genetics, large genomes, require growth space
23Bleecker et al. (1988) Science 241, 1086–1089 Seeds are mutagenized in the lab and then screened for mutants in the ethylene signaling pathway, based on the “triple response” phenotype. The mutants that we discover correspond to mutated genes.
24Ethylene-Response Mutants in Arabidopsis Ethylene-insensitive mutantsetr1 etr2 ein4 (dominant)ein2 ein3 ein5 (recessive)ein6 ein7The WT versions of these genes are“Positive Regulators” of ethylene responseC2H4Constitutive-response mutantsairCTR1 is a “NegativeRegulator” of responsesctr1 (recessive)(eto1)
25*A genetic map of molecular markers on the chromosome allows one to clone any gene for which there is a mutant phenotypeMolecular markers providea link between genetic loci and physical DNAChang et al. (1988) PNAS 85:
26Generating a mapping population mutmutXLandsbergColumbiahand-pollinateheterozygous for mutF1self-pollinateRecombinant genotypesF212345Mapping population
27Mapping population Marker A Marker B Example of mapping with molecular markersMapping populationMarker BMarker A
28RAN1 RTE1/GR ETR1 CTR1 EIN2 EIN5/XRN4 Cu2+RECEPTOR SUBFAMILIESN--C12GolgiRAN1HHC2H4-bindingC=C=HHNRTE1/GRER/Golgi-C-GAFN-ERHHCu2+Cu2+Cu2+HistidinekinaseReceiverN-ETR1KDC-CTR1Degradation by the 26S proteasome-CCytoplasmETP1/2EIN2?N--CEIN5/XRN4NucleusEBF1/2EIN3/EIL1Degradation by the 26S proteasome via SCFEBF1/2EBSERF1GCCC2H4 Responsive Gene
29Bleecker et al. (1988) Science 241, 1086–1089 ArabidopsisThe tall etiolated seedling has a mutation in the ethylene receptor ETR1. The seedling cannot detect ethylene.
30The mutant Arabidopsis etr1-1 gene has been transformed into other plants where it confers a high level degree of ethylene insensitivityThe general pathway is CONSERVED. For exampie, receptors are conserved among plants Can also put mutations known from one plant into the gene of another plant0, 3, and 8 days post polliniation (G,H, I)L detached flowers treated 16 hours with 1 ppm ethyleneWilkinson et al. (1997)Nature Biotech. 15:
31Outline Ethylene hormone signaling Introduction to the ethylene hormone(effects, history, significance)Genetic dissection of the ethylene signaling pathway (this provides for the genetic engineering of many responses to ethylene)Addressing the food crisis: recent ethylene discoveries in rice
32Ethylene, rice, and feeding millions Half the world's population eats rice as a staple. In Asia, about 3 billion people depend on rice to survive. The demand for food is increasing as the population increases.Rice is two-thirds of the diet of subsistence farmers in India and Bangladesh. When rice crops suffer, millions starve (e.g., the great floods of 1974).
33The problemA quarter of the world's rice grows in areas prone to flooding.Rice plants normally grow well in standing water. However, most will die if they are completely underwater for more than 4 days, due to lack of oxygen, carbon dioxide and sunlight.Annual flooding costs rice farmers in South and South-East Asia more than $1 billion dollars (U.S. equivalent) each year.
34Flood-tolerant rice exists in nature There are deepwater rice cultivars that have evolved and adapted to constant flooding by acquiring the ability to elongate their internodes, which have hollow structures and function as “snorkels” to allow gas exchange with the atmosphere, and thus prevent drowning.internodeDon’t have to search for mutants. Find the genes involved in flooding tolerance in the deepwater rice and transfer the genes to the high-yield varieties.HOWEVER, these deepwater varieties have low grain yield, unlike the high-yield varieties used for food.
35Deepwater conditions. Plants were submerged in water up to 70% of the plant height, and the water level was then increased by 10 cm every day until the tank was full.
36Tank is filled to topComplete submergence. The tank was completely filled with water on the first day of the treatment.
37This elongated deepwater rice plant in Thailand was preserved after flooding occurred and shows the typical flooding height. White bar = 1 meter.
38Mapping the SNORKEL gene loci to the rice chromosomes Water level- Taichung65 (T65) is a non-deepwater rice- C9285 is a deepwater rice- NIL-12 is the progeny of a cross that transferred the key portion of chromosome 12 into T65
39Localization of SNORKEL proteins to the plant nucleus using protein fusions to GFP Yoko Hattori et al. (2009) Nature 460,
40The researchers found that the SNORKEL genes belong to the ERF (Ethylene Response Factor) family of transcription factors, which are induced by ethylene.Deepwater riceNon-deepwater riceTranscriptional responseNo transcriptional responseSNORKEL1 & 2FloodingNon-deepwater rice does not have these genes!
41Long-term flooding vs. flash flooding A few rice cultivars have adapted to areas where flash flooding is common by learning how to “hold their breath”. These cultivars can survive under water for up to 2 weeks.These cultivars do NOT use elongation as an escape strategy. They become quiescent and stay submerged, avoiding the energy consumption that is involved in elongation. For example, they increase anaerobic respiration.The gene controlling this response, named SUB1, was identified and cloned in Like the SNORKEL genes, it is also a member of the ERF gene family.
42Solving the problemWhen plants are under water, ethylene accumulates in the plant. The ethylene then induces expression of these ERF genes. SNORKEL1 and SNORKEL2 trigger remarkable internode elongation via the hormone gibberellin. In contrast, SUB1A inhibits internode elongation.Now transferring these genes to high-yield cultivars.These engineered strains will be able to resist floods that destroy vast tracts of rice fields each year, preventing starvation and offering hope to hundreds of millions of people who make their living from rice farming.
43Flood tolerant rice:Signaling from ethylene to another hormone GA, which controls elongation1 billion per year lost to flooding3 billion
44Responses to Gibberellic Acid (GA) Cell enlargement and cell divisions in sub-apical meristemsGrowth in stems, fruits, and leavesStem and leaf expansionFruit development and expansionStimulation of floweringCell divisions in some tissuesDormancy and senescenceSeed germination
45Some uses of the GA hormone During germination, the storage starches are converted to simple sugars for use in seedling development. The “malting” of barley seeds in beer production is the process of using GA to induce enzymes in seed germination causing conversion of starches to sugars. Germination is then stopped by heating and the sugars are fermented.GA induces seedlessness in grapes, while increasing fruit size.Gibberellin induces growth in Thompson’s seedless grapes
46Examples of signaling pathways that researchers are studying in plants using mutants Developmental regulatory pathwaysdevelopment of embryo, flower, leaf, root, trichomeroot apical meristem formationshoot apical meristem formationpolarity and cytoskeletal rearrangementSpecific cell fate determination and differentiation(xylem and phloem specification, root patterning)Abiotic stress response pathways(salt, drought, heat, cold, metals, vernalization etc.)Plant hormone signal transduction(auxin, ethylene, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, brassinosteroid, jasmonic acid)
47Which one is the wild type? Face of Jesus in lower left??!!!