2 What is Anatomy?Human anatomy is the science concerned with the structure of the human body.
3 Terminology: It’s Greek to me! The terms of anatomy are descriptive and are generally of Greek or Latin derivation.
4 Some history Of Anatomy The history of human anatomy parallels that of medicine and has also been greatly influenced by various religions.Babylonians, Syrians, Egyptians, Chinese, and Hindus whose religious beliefs conflicted with such desecration of the human body
5 Prescientific PeriodPrehistoric interest in anatomy was undoubtedly limited to practical information necessary for survival.Trepanation was a surgical technique that was practiced by several cultures.Paleopathology is the science concerned with diseases of prehistoric people.
6 English Anatomical History As seen in England, anatomy and dissections were first associated with punishment for murderers (Murder Act) and then with poverty (Anatomy Act and Poor Law Amendment Act). The bodies used for science were not revered and donated for altruistic purposes. They were attained by force and theft on many occasions and so it is reasonable that people would not wish to associate with that kind of history.
7 In England Henry VIII granted the annual right to the bodies of four hanged felons. Charles II later increased this to six . Now bodies had to come from somewhere, but the conjoining of anatomy and hanging offences was very bad news, and the basis of an association which lasted until the first Anatomy act in Dissection was now a recognised punishment, a fate worse than death to be added to hanging for the worst offenders. The dissections performed on hanged felons were public: indeed part of the punishment was the delivery from hangman to surgeons at the gallows following public execution, and later public exhibition of the open body itself
8 FranceIn France, incidentally surgeons acquired respectability by the back door. In 1687 surgeons performed a successful operation for anal fistula on Louis XIV. It was successful, probably because they practised for a year on lesser mortals with the same complaint. In 1752 an act was passed allowing dissection of all murderers as an alternative to hanging in chains. This was a grisly fate, the tarred body being suspended in a cage until it fell to pieces. The object of this and dissection was to deny a grave
9 The earliest medical scientist of whose works any great part survives today is Hippocrates, a Greek physician active in the late 5th and early 4th centuries BC ( BC).
10 The final major anatomist of ancient times was Galen, active in the 2nd century AD. He compiled much of the knowledge obtained by previous writers, and furthered the inquiry into the function of organs by performing vivisection on animals. His collection of drawings, based mostly on dog anatomy, would hold as a "Gray's Anatomy of the ancient world" for 1500 years.
11 The 16th century also saw the first pioneers to challenge Galen The 16th century also saw the first pioneers to challenge Galen. Thanks to the printing press, all over Europe a collective effort proceeded to distill the original Galen from the various added texts (mostly Arabic) in origin. Vesalius was the first to publish a text that challenged him drawing for drawing, traveling all the way from Leuven to Padua for permission to dissect victims from the gallows without fear of persecution. His drawings are triumphant descriptions of the (sometimes major) descrepancies between dogs and humans. It shows his suberb drawing ability that many anatomists who came later challenged him in their texts, though Galen reigned supreme for another century.
12 Many famous artists studied anatomy, attended dissections, and published drawings for money, from Michelangelo to Rembrandt. For the first time, prominent universities could teach something about anatomy through drawings, rather than relying on knowledge of Latin. The only stumbling block was a possible reprimand from the Church, which frightened several anatomists of the time from performing dissections on their own.
13 Though a very fruitful period for the sciences, the Renaissance could be dangerous, as is seen in the case of Galileo.Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino personally handed Galileo an admonition enjoining him to neither advocate nor teach Copernican astronomy because it was contrary to the accepted understanding of the Holy ScripturesThe court issued a sentence of condemnation and forced Galileo to abjure. As a result, he was confined in Siena
14 Some scientists of the time were scared enough to keep moving from city to city. Descartes is a prime exampleI think therefore I amIn 1633, Galileo was condemned by the Roman Catholic Church, and Descartes abandoned plans to publish Treatise on the World, his work of the previous four years.In 1663, the Pope placed his works on the Index of Prohibited Books.