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2-1 Chapter R More Review of Arithmetic

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2-2 Types of Fractions 3, 4, 12, 11 15 8 26 35 19, 9, 13, 42 19 4 10 29 5, 3, 2, 1 8 17 9 8 2 9 15 4 Proper Mixed Numbers Improper Numerator Denominator

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2-3 Converting Improper Fractions to Whole or Mixed Numbers 2 Steps 1. Divide the numerator by the denominator 2. a.If you have no remainder, the quotient is a whole number 2 b.If you have a remainder, the quotient is a mixed number 24 21 1 4 4 5 R 1 4 21 20 1 = 5 = 1

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2-4 Converting Improper Fractions to Whole or Mixed Numbers 3 Steps 1. Multiply the denominator of the fraction by the whole number. 2. Add the product from Step 1 to the numerator of the old fraction. 3 Place the total from Step 2 over the denominator of the old fraction to get the improper fraction. (8 x 6) = 48 48 + 1 = 49 49 8 1 8 6

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2-5 Raising Fractions to Higher Terms When Denominator is Known 2 Steps 1. Divide the new denominator by the old denominator to get the common number that raises the fraction to higher terms. 2. Multiply the common number from Step 1 by the old numerator and place it as the new numerator over the new denominator. 4 7 28 28 0 4 x 4 = 16 4 = ? 7 28 16 28

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2-6 Least Common Denominator (LCD) The smallest nonzero whole number into which ALL denominators will divide evenly. 5 16 20 10 40 60 20 + What is the least common denominator?

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2-7 Adding Like Fractions Add the numerators and place the total over the denominator If the total of your numerators is the same as your original denominator, convert your answer to a whole number; if the total is larger than your original denominator, convert your answer to a mixed number 2 3 5 9 9 9 += 5 6 11 2 9 9 +==1

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2-8 Adding Unlike Fractions 4 Steps 1. Find the LCD 2. Change each fraction to a like fraction with the LCD. 3. Add the numerators and place the total over the LCD. 4. If necessary, reduce the answer to lowest terms. 1 1 3 8 9 12 +++ 24 + 9 + 8 + 6 = 47 72 72 72 72 72

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2-9 Adding Mixed Numbers 3 Steps 1. Add the fractions. 2. Add the whole numbers. 3. Combine steps 1 & 2. Be sure you do not have an improper fraction in your final answer. If necessary, reduce the answer to lowest terms. 7 7 20 3 12 5 20 1 5 4 20 24 4 20 20 17. 4 1 20 5 44 66 77 1 18 = = = ++ Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

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2-10 Subtracting Like Fractions Subtract the numerators and place the total over the denominator If necessary, reduce the answer to lowest terms 7 1 6 / 2 3 12 12 12 / 2 6 = - =

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2-11 Subtracting Unlike Fractions 5 2 8 64 - 5 40 8 64 2 - 2 64 64 38 = 19 64 32 4 Steps 1. Find the LCD 2. Raise the fraction to its equivalent value. 3. Subtract the numerators and place the answer over the LCD. 4. If necessary, reduce the answer to lowest terms. -

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2-12 Subtracting Mixed Numbers 1 4 2 8 - 3 8 8 1 8 3 Steps 1. Subtract fractions, making sure to find the LCD. 2. Subtract whole numbers. 3. Reduce the fractions to lowest terms. When Borrowing is Not Necessary 66 6

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2-13 Subtracting Mixed Numbers 1 2 6 2 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 Steps 1. Make sure the fractions have the LCD. 2. Borrow from the whole number. 3. Subtract whole numbers and fractions. 4. Reduce the fractions to lowest terms. When Borrowing is Necessary 33 1 2

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2-14 Subtracting Unlike Fractions 5 2 8 64 - 5 40 8 64 - 2 2 64 64 38 = 19 64 32 4 Steps 1. Find the LCD 2. Raise the fraction to its equivalent value. 3. Subtract the numerators and place the answer over the LCD. 4. If necessary, reduce the answer to lowest terms. -

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2-15 Multiplying Proper Fractions 2 Steps 1. Multiply the numerator and the denominators 2. Reduce the answer to lowest terms 5 2 4 40 20 2 5 7 70 35 ==xx

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2-16 Multiplying Mixed Numbers Convert the mixed numbers to improper fractions Multiply the numerator and denominators 1 1 7 3 7 1 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 = X 1 X == 1 1 Reduce the answer to lowest terms

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2-17 Dividing Proper Fractions 1 2 1 3 3 8 3 8 2 16 = = X Invert (turn upside down) the divisor (the second fraction ) Multiply the fractions.. Reduce the answer to lowest terms

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2-18 Dividing Mixed Numbers Convert all mixed numbers to improper fractions Invert the divisor and multiply 3 5 35 6 105 3 4 6 4 17 34 34 8 = X 2 X = = Reduce the answer to lowest terms 3

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2-19 More Review

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