Presentation on theme: "5 Coping with Environmental Variation: Energy. 5 Coping with Environmental Variation: Energy Sources of Energy Autotrophy Photosynthetic Pathways Heterotrophy."— Presentation transcript:
5 Coping with Environmental Variation: Energy Sources of Energy Autotrophy Photosynthetic Pathways Heterotrophy
Sources of Energy Autotrophs are organisms that assimilate energy from sunlight (photosynthesis), or from inorganic compounds (chemosynthesis). Heterotrophs obtain their energy by consuming energy-rich organic compounds from other organisms.
Autotrophy Most autotrophs obtain energy through photosynthesis. Sunlight provides the energy to take up CO 2 and synthesize organic compounds. Concept 5.2: Radiant and chemical energy captured by autotrophs is converted into stored energy in carbon–carbon bonds.
Autotrophy Chemosynthesis (chemolithotrophy) is a process that uses energy from inorganic compounds to produce carbohydrates. Chemosynthesis is important in bacteria involved in nutrient cycling, and in some ecosystems such as ocean vent communities.
Autotrophy Photosynthesis has two major steps: The “light reaction”—light is harvested and used to split water and provide electrons to make ATP and NADPH. The “dark reaction”—CO 2 is fixed in the Calvin cycle, and carbohydrates are synthesized.
Figure 5.6 Absorption Spectra of Plant Photosynthetic Pigments
Figure 5.7 A Plant Responses to Variations in Light Levels
Figure 5.7 B Plant Responses to Variations in Light Levels
Box 5.1 How Do Plants Cope with Too Much Light? Photoinhibition: The excess energy generates toxic oxygen compounds that damage membranes. Plants have evolved ways to dissipate energy: reduce exposure by moving leaves away from the sun curling leaves.
Photosynthetic Pathways Plants that lack specialized biochemistry use the C 3 photosynthetic pathway. Other metabolic processes can also decrease photosynthetic efficiency. Concept 5.3: Environmental constraints resulted in the evolution of biochemical pathways that improve the efficiency of photosynthesis.
Photosynthetic Pathways Rubisco can catalyze two competing reactions. Carboxylase reaction: CO 2 is taken up, sugars are synthesized, and O 2 is released (photosynthesis). Oxygenase reaction: O 2 is taken up, leading to breakdown of carbon compounds and release of CO 2 (photorespiration).
Figure 5.9 Does Photorespiration Protect Plants from Damage by Intense Light?
Photosynthetic Pathways The C 4 photosynthetic pathway reduces photorespiration. It evolved independently several times in different species in 18 families. Many grass species use this pathway, including corn, sugarcane, and sorghum.
Figure 5.10 Examples of Plants with the C 4 Photosynthetic Pathway
Figure 5.11 Morphological Specialization in C 4 Plants (Part 1)
Figure 5.11 Morphological Specialization in C 4 Plants (Part 2)
Figure 5.12 C 4 Plant Abundance and Growing-Season Temperature
Photosynthetic Pathways Some plants have a unique photosynthetic pathway that minimizes water loss—crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). This pathway occurs in over 10,000 plant species belonging to 33 families.
Photosynthetic Pathways In CAM, CO 2 uptake and the Calvin cycle are separated temporally. CAM plants open their stomates at night when air temperatures are cooler and humidity higher. The plants loose less water than if stomates are open during the day.
Figure 5.13 C 3 versus C 4 versus CAM Photosynthesis
Figure 5.15 Examples of Plants with CAM Photosynthesis
Photosynthetic Pathways Some plants can switch between C 3 and CAM—facultative CAM. When water is abundant, they use the C 4 pathway If conditions become arid or saline, they switch to CAM. It is irreversible in some species but not others.
Heterotrophy Concept 5.4: Heterotrophs have evolved mechanisms to acquire and assimilate energy efficiently from a variety of organic sources.
Heterotrophy Optimal foraging theory = animals will maximize the amount of energy gained per unit time, taking into account the energy and risk involved in finding food. It assumes that evolution acts on the behavior of animals to maximize their energy gain.
Figure 5.19 Conceptual Model of Optimal Foraging
Figure 5.20 Food Size Selection in Oystercatchers