Presentation on theme: "Intensifying Vocabulary Intervention for Kindergartners"— Presentation transcript:
1 Intensifying Vocabulary Intervention for Kindergartners Breda O’Keeffe1,Michael Coyne, Sharon Ware, Ashley Capozzoli, Joshua Wilson, Betsy McCoach, John MaduraUtah Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Conference, June 20131University of UtahDepartment of Special Education
2 Importance of Vocabulary This SessionImportance of VocabularyConceptual framework for early literacy instructionEarly Vocabulary InstructionChoosing WordsDefining WordsLesson PlanningExample StudyExample Instructional ActivitiesResults
3 Importance of Vocabulary What we know from research:Children enter school with meaningful differences in vocabulary knowledge as a result of differences in experiences and exposure to literacy and language activities. (Hart & Risley, 1995)The vocabulary gap grows larger in the early grades. Children who enter with limited vocabulary knowledge grow much more discrepant over time from their peers who have rich vocabulary knowledge. (Biemiller & Slonim, 2001)
4 Specific Comprehension Difficulties Importance of VocabularyLanguage ComprehensionSpecific Comprehension DifficultiesTypicalReadersWord ReadingMixedReadingDifficultiesWord ReadingDifficultiesCatts et al., 2005; Vellutino et al., 2007; Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998
5 Implications Students at-risk for language difficulties Code-based instruction alone is insufficientOral language skills instruction is needed (in addition to code-based)
6 A Conceptual Framework for Reading/Literacy Instruction
7 A Conceptual Framework for Reading/Literacy Instruction
8 A Conceptual Framework for Reading/Literacy Instruction How can you expand students’ vocabularies before they can decode words?Story reading with the same type of instruction that we are going to present today, embedded in story reading, then expanded on after story reading.
9 Choosing Words: Three Tiers Low Frequency WordsTeach when needed in content areasTier ThreeHigh Frequency WordsTeach a lot to build Vocabulary KnowledgeTier TwoHigh Frequency WordsTeach only when missingTier One
10 Tier one (Basic Words) Made up of the most basic words Examples: clock, baby, home, dogTime spent on instruction: VERY LITTLE TO NONEMost students have these words in their vocabulary, therefore these words do not need to be taught.What would be the exception?_____________ELL students
11 Tier Two (Mortar Words) Made up of high frequency words for mature language usersExamples: coincidence, absurd, industriousTime spent on instruction: A LOTMost students will benefit from instruction on these words as it will add productively to their language ability.
12 Tier Three (Brick Words) Made up of low frequency words that are limited to specific domainsExamples: isotope, peninsula, trichotillomaniaTime spent on instruction: VERY LITTLEMost students will only need to learn these words within a specific content area they are currently learning.
13 How to Choose Tier Two Words 1) Importance and UtilityWords that are characteristic of mature language users and APPEAR ACROSS A VARIETY OF DOMAINS (will generalize)2) Instructional PotentialWords that are easy to teach and build rich representations3) Conceptual UnderstandingWords for which students understand the general concept but provide precision and specificity in describing the concepts
14 Examples of Tier 1, 2 and 3 words Tier 1: BasicTier 2: MortarTier 3: BrickhomeanalyzevolcanodogapproachlavahappyrolepumiceWork with a partner and decide which category each word belongs in:see find consist glaciated require varygo lexical major look molt significantboy respond abdominal interpret vaccinecome peninsula again consequence over isotopelatheTier 1: see, come, again, find, go, look, boy, overTier 2: consist, major, require, significant, vary, interpret, respond, consequenceTier 3: glaciated, abdominal, peninsula, molt, lexical, vaccine, isotope, lathe
15 Defining Words Student-friendly definitions Convey basic meaning of the wordDefinition (formal or informal)SynonymDemonstration
16 Definitions and synonyms: Defining WordsDefinitions and synonyms:Must be understandable to the students!!!Should be as concise as possible.Don’t worry about subtle nuance; definitions should get students in the ballpark.Demonstrations:Must clearly convey the meaning.
17 Defining Words The most common errors in vocabulary instruction: Using words the students may not know.Using too many words.Watch out for definitions that students do not understand!“A glerm is a fribby zog.”
18 Defining WordsFormal Definition:Name a larger class, then name a specifier:A cooper is a person who makes barrels.
19 Defining Words Informal Definition: Give any phrase that clearly conveys the meaning of the target word:When you are gleeful, you are very, very happy.
20 Lesson Planning Grades K-2: Story book reading BEFORE: Introduce key vocabulary & definitions orally before reading storyDURING: Teacher reads story aloud, students listen for and identify “magic” wordsAFTER: Vocabulary extension activities after storyGrades 3 and higher:Students read textOther procedures the same
25 Tier 1 Instruction Elements of Reading Vocabulary (Beck & McKeown)Whole class instruction20-30 min/day, 5 days/wk, wksDelivered by K teachersIntroduced words (5 per week)Read storiesConducted follow up activities
26 Beck, I. L. , McKeown, M. G. , & Kucan, L. (2002) Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: Guilford.
27 “These bricks will make a fine, sturdy house,” said the third little pig. Sturdy means strong. Now I’ll say the sentence again with word that mean sturdy. “These bricks will make a fine strong house.” In the picture the little pig says that the bricks (point to the bricks) will make a sturdy, or strong, house. Everyone say sturdy.
28 Tier 2 Instruction In addition to Tier 1 Standard protocol Focused on 3 words per weekSmall groups (3-5 students)20-30 min/day, 4 days/wk, wksDelivered by school personnel
29 Tier 2 Instruction Multiple exemplars Increased opportunities to respondError correctionsModel, lead extended responsesRelate to personal experienceGames!
30 Extended InstructionSimple explanation of target words provided within the context of the story. Extended activities after story reading.Extended vocabulary instruction is characterized by explicit, conspicuous teaching that includes using both contextual and definitional information, giving multiple exposures of target words in varied contexts, and encouraging deep processing.(Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002; Stahl, 1986; Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986)
31 Tier 2 Instruction Examples/Nonexamples: Let’s play a word game. I’ll tell you about some things. If you think it is strong, say “That’s sturdy!” If you think it is not very strong, say “Uh oh, that’s not very sturdy!”Examples/Nonexamples:A big jet airplane in the sky.A little paper airplane on a windy day.A tall tower made of cards.This school.A big huge rock.A snowman on a hot sunny day.
32 Extended InstructionLet’s play a game about our magic word drenched.I’ll show you some pictures. If you think the picture shows something that looks drenched, or really wet, put your thumb up like this and whisper, “That looks drenched”.If the picture doesn’t show something that looks drenched, put your thumb down and don’t say anything.32
33 Extended Instruction (Show picture) Do these children look drenched? If you held up your thumb like this, you’re right! The children in this picture look drenched, or really wet.“The children laughed as they got drenched playing in the water fountain.”33
34 Extended Instruction Picture 1 (Person in the rain) The person in this picture is drenched, or really wet.This picture reminds me of a time when I was outside at a picnic. The skies got very dark and it started to rain. I ran to get inside the nearest building, but it was too late. I got drenched from the rain. I felt cold and wet until I changed my clothes.(remove picture) Tell me about a time when you were drenched from the rain.34
35 Scaffolding Student Responses Ask: Does this picture show someone who is active?If student answers correctly, say:Yes, that’s right! Why does/doesn’t this picture show someone who is active? (Students should say something like: “The kids are playing soccer!” or “The girl is sleeping!” or relate to the definition.)If student answers incorrectly, say:This picture does/doesn’t show someone active, because it does/doesn’t show someone moving around or doing something. Let’s try again. Does this picture show someone who is active?
36 Measures: Pretest Receptive Expressive EVT Target word measure PPVT (Assignment Variable)WJ Listening ComprehensionTarget word measureEVTTarget word measure
37 Measures: Post test Receptive Expressive PPVT WJ Listening ComprehensionTarget word measureEVTTarget word measureStory RetellComprehensionLanguage sample
38 Regression Discontinuity Quasi-experimental designAssignment variable is known