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Comparative Assessment of Human Missions to Mars Damon F. Landau Ph. D. Preliminary Exam September 13, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Comparative Assessment of Human Missions to Mars Damon F. Landau Ph. D. Preliminary Exam September 13, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Comparative Assessment of Human Missions to Mars Damon F. Landau Ph. D. Preliminary Exam September 13, 2005

2 9/13/2005Damon Landau2 How Shall We Go to Mars? Mission Architectures Technology Options

3 9/13/2005Damon Landau3 Key Technologies TechnologyReadiness Level Chemical PropulsionSystem flight proven Reusable Chemical PropulsionSystem flight qualified Cargo Nuclear Electric PropulsionPrototype in space Nuclear Thermal RocketPrototype demonstration In-Situ Propellant ProductionComponent demonstration Transfer Vehicle NEPComponent demonstration AerocaptureComponent demonstration Mars Launch Vehicle NTRComponent in laboratory Mars Water ExcavationProof of concept

4 9/13/2005Damon Landau4 Transportation Scenarios ArchitectureSchemata Direct Semi-Direct Stop-Over M-E Semi-Cycler E-M Semi-Cycler Cycler

5 9/13/2005Damon Landau5 Earth-Mars Trajectories Launch years 2009–2022 (seven opportunities). Transfer TOF 120–270 days. Approx. 550-day Mars stay time. Minimize  V for entire mission (Transfer Vehicle + “Taxi” launch). taxi transfer vehicle taxi

6 9/13/2005Damon Landau6 Constrained Optimization Problem Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) algorithm

7 9/13/2005Damon Landau7 Direct Trajectories

8 9/13/2005Damon Landau8 Free-Return Trajectory E1-E3 near 3:2 Earth:spacecraft resonance

9 9/13/2005Damon Landau9 Earth-Mars Semi-Cyclers * E-M-M-E M2-M3 near 3:4 resonance E1-E3 near 3:2 resonance, E3-E4 1:1 resonance, E4-E6 near 3:2 resonance * Landau, D. F., and Longuski, J. M., “Mars Exploration via Earth-Mars Semi-Cyclers,” AAS Paper , Lake Tahoe, CA, August 7–11, 2005.

10 9/13/2005Damon Landau10 Mars-Earth Semi-Cyclers M-E-E-M E2-E3 near 2:1 resonanceE2-E3 near 2:3 resonanceE2-E4 1.5 year transfer

11 9/13/2005Damon Landau11 Cycler Trajectory * E-M-E Outbound cycler trajectory with E1-E3 near 3:2 resonance and E3-E4 near 1.5 year transfer. * McConaghy, T. T., Yam, C. H., Landau, D. F., and Longuski, J. M., “Two-Synodic-Period Earth-Mars Cyclers with Intermediate Earth Encounter,” AAS Paper , AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Big Sky, MT, August 4–7, To appear in the Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets.

12 9/13/2005Damon Landau12 Minimum  V * Powered Capture Aero-Assisted Capture * Landau, D. F. and Longuski, J. M., “A Reassessment of Trajectory Options for Human Missions to Mars,” AIAA Paper , AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Providence, RI, August 16–19, 2004.

13 9/13/2005Damon Landau13 Low-Thrust payload = 50 mt launch V ∞ =0 arrival V ∞ =0  = m hardware /P jet = 10 kg/kW f t = m tank /m propellant = 5% a 0 & c optimized for minimum m 0 TOF, days Initial Mass, mt

14 9/13/2005Damon Landau14 The Parking-Orbit Problem Case 1: Perfect OrientationCase 2: Imperfect Orientation

15 9/13/2005Damon Landau15 A Parking-Orbit Solution * Twist angle,  Arrival orbit (in plane of page) Departure orbit (out of plane of page)  A (hyperbolic half-angle) * Landau, D. F., Longuski, J. M., and Penzo, P. A., “Method for Parking-Orbit Reorientation for Human Missions to Mars,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 42, No. 3, May-June 2005, pp. 517–522.

16 9/13/2005Damon Landau16 Mars Parking Orbit 300 km periapsis 1 day period J 2 and solar perturbations EM M-E Semi-Cycler

17 9/13/2005Damon Landau17 Proposed Research Hyperbolic Rendezvous Ranking of Architectures and Technologies

18 9/13/2005Damon Landau18 Hyperbolic Rendezvous E5 E3 E1 M4 M2 E1-M2 170 days gravity assist E3 flyby from Mars cycler taxi

19 9/13/2005Damon Landau19 Hyperbolic Rendezvous (con’d) cycler V ∞ =5 km/s taxi V ∞ =5 km/s r = 477,000 km one-day transfer lunar orbit Earth one hour before rendezvous  V = 284 m/s  V from LEO = 4.30 km/s cycler frame Goal is to develop a rendezvous guidance algorithm in Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire frame. Very little previous work on hyperbolic rendezvous.

20 9/13/2005Damon Landau20 Ranking of Architectures and Technologies IMLEO Calculation Taxi = 1–3 mt/person TV = 3–10 mt/person Cargo = 0–10 mt/person Consumables = 5 kg/day/person Rank technologies. Rank mission architectures. Determine good and bad combinations. Seek best path from early exploration to settlement.

21 9/13/2005Damon Landau21 Propellant Metric * Trajectory Complexity Technology Complexity H=H 2, M=CH 4, N=NTR, L=Low-Thrust, A=Aerocapture, I=ISPP, T E =Tanker to Earth, W = Mars Water a Propellant mass per ton landed on Mars’ surface * Landau, D. F., and Longuski, J. M., “Comparative Assessment of Human Missions to Mars,” AAS Paper , AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Big Sky, MT, August 4–7, 2003.

22 9/13/2005Damon Landau22 Journal and Conference Papers Journal Papers Landau, D. F., Longuski, J. M., and Penzo, P. A., “Method for Parking-Orbit Reorientation for Human Missions to Mars,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 42, No. 3, May-June 2005, pp. 517–522. Chen, K. J., McConaghy, T. T., Landau, D. F., Longuski, J. M., and Aldrin, B., “Powered Earth-Mars Cycler with Three Synodic-Period Repeat Time.” To appear in the Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. McConaghy, T. T., Landau, D. F., Yam, C. H., and Longuski, J. M., “A Notable Two-Synodic-Period Earth-Mars Cycler.” To appear in the Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. Conference Papers Chen, K. J., Landau, D. F., McConaghy, T. T., Longuski, J. M., and Aldrin, B., “Preliminary Analysis and Design of Powered Earth-Mars Cycling Trajectories,” AIAA Paper , AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Conference, Monterey, CA, August Chen, K. J., McConaghy, T. T., Landau, D. F., and Longuski, J. M., “A Powered Earth-Mars Cycler with Three Synodic-Period Repeat Time,” AAS Paper , AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Big Sky, MT, August 4–7, McConaghy, T. T., Yam, C. H., Landau, D. F., and Longuski, J. M., “Two-Synodic-Period Earth-Mars Cyclers with Intermediate Earth Encounter,” AAS Paper , AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Big Sky, MT, August 4–7, Landau, D. F., and Longuski, J. M., “Comparative Assessment of Human Missions to Mars,” AAS Paper , AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Big Sky, MT, August 4–7, Landau, D. F., Longuski, J. M., and Penzo, P. A., “Parking Orbits for Human Mission to Mars,” AAS Paper , AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Big Sky, MT, August 4–7, Landau, D. F. and Longuski, J. M., “A Reassessment of Trajectory Options for Human Missions to Mars,” AIAA Paper , AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Providence, RI, August 16–19, Landau, D. F., and Longuski, J. M., “Mars Exploration via Earth-Mars Semi-Cyclers,” AAS Paper , Lake Tahoe, CA, August 7–11, Okutsu, M., Landau, D. F., and Longuski, J. M., “Low-Thrust Round-Trip Trajectories to Mars with One-Synodic-Period Repeat Time,” AAS Paper , Lake Tahoe, CA, August 7–11, 2005.

23 9/13/2005Damon Landau23 Primer Vector Sub-optimal cycler trajectory |P|

24 9/13/2005Damon Landau24 Propulsion Systems Propulsion SystemI sp (sec.) Hydrogen/Oxygen (H 2 /O 2 ) Methane/Oxygen (CH 4 /O 2 ) Nuclear (NTR) Cargo NEP8,00010–30 kg/kW0.15 Transfer Vehicle NEP 3,000–5,00010 kg/kW0.15


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