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Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. A Mars Heavy Transport.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. A Mars Heavy Transport."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. A Mars Heavy Transport Architecture Using Existing Launchers and Technology

2 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Existing « throw capacity » to a direct Trans Mars Injection (C3 = 10 km 2 /s 2 ) Delta-IV HeavyAriane VProton / cryo[1][1]Proton/ Briz[2][2] Payload after TMI:8,000[3][3]5,900[4][4]5’800[5][5]4,580[6][6]Kg [1][1] Assumes developing a new cryogenic upper stage for the Proton, with same dry mass as the Briz-M. [2][2] Using the 327s isp Briz-M upper stage [3][3] Delta IV Heavy Demo brochure [4][4] Derived from GTO payload data [5][5] Derived from Briz-M payload data [6][6] Proton Launch System Mission Planner’s Guide, page 2-23

3 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Potential payload to Trans Mars Injection using a space tug for orbit raising from 400 x 400 km orbit to 400 x 300,000 km departure orbit (C3 = 10 km 2 /s 2 ) Delta-IV HeavyAriane VProton / cryoProton / Briz Payload after TMI:17,600[1][1]16,400 16’000[1][1] 14,600[1][1] kg [1][1] Additional air drag due to increased payload fairing to 5.4m diameter

4 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Standard Delta-IV Fairing Proposed configuration

5 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Standard Delta-IV Fairing Proposed configuration Mars entry aeroshell Payload adaptor and cryogenic cooling system Upper stage modified for cryogenic cooling of propellants

6 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Orbital Transfer Tug 3,500 m2 SLASR solar arrays Propulsion Module equiped with several NEXT ion drives (13.3 tons) Jettisoneable Propellant Tank (7.1 tons)

7 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Low Earth Orbit

8 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Low Earth Orbit to Earth Departure Orbit Earth LEO

9 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Low Earth Orbit to Earth Departure Orbit Earth LEO

10 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Low Earth Orbit to Earth Departure Orbit Earth LEO

11 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Low Earth Orbit to Earth Departure Orbit Earth LEO

12 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Low Earth Orbit to Earth Departure Orbit Earth LEO

13 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Low Earth Orbit to Earth Departure Orbit Earth LEO

14 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Low Earth Orbit to Earth Departure Orbit Earth LEO

15 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Low Earth Orbit to Earth Departure Orbit Earth LEO Departure Orbit

16 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Earth Departure Orbit Direct launch crew transfer capsule

17 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Space tug orbit lowering by multiple atmospheric passes Earth LEO

18 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Space tug Orbit lowering by multiple atmospheric passes Earth LEO

19 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Space tug Orbit lowering by multiple atmospheric passes Earth LEO

20 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Space tug Orbit lowering by multiple atmospheric passes Earth LEO

21 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Space tug Orbit lowering by multiple atmospheric passes Earth LEO

22 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Space tug Orbit lowering by multiple atmospheric passes Earth LEO

23 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Space tug Orbit lowering by multiple atmospheric passes Earth LEO

24 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Mars Capture Orbit

25 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Mars Capture Orbit Mars 1 sol period capture orbit 250 x 33,793 km

26 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Transfer data: best 180-day opportunities from 2001 to 2039 DateDeparture C3Arrival C3Departure dVArrival dVEntry VTOF (km2/s2) (km/s) (days)

27 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Payload to LEO (400 x 400 km orbit) Delta-IV HAriane VProton/cryoProton/Briz Payload to LEO 22,560 21,000 22,200 * 21,600kg 5.4m fairing penalty ,118 kg New payload to LEO 22,234 21,000 20,082 19,482kg Payload + upper stage 26,269 25,838 22,849 22,248kg Refrigeration system kg Payload adapter kg => Additional mass 1, kg

28 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Results: Gross payload mass to MOC including aeroshell DateDelta-IV HAriane VProton/cryoProton/Briz '896 16'731 16'307 14'922kg '766 16'599 16'193 14'775kg '128 14'942 14'769 12'955kg '245 14'050 14'001 11'998kg '366 14'172 14'106 12'128kg '258 15'073 14'882 13'098kg '327 16'154 15'811 14'282kg '841 16'676 16'259 14'861kg '020 16'856 16'414 15'063kg '755 15'575 15'314 13'645kg '469 14'276 14'196 12'239kg '092 13'895 13'868 11'833kg '834 14'644 14'513 12'634kg '783 15'604 15'339 13'677kg '747 16'580 16'177 14'754kg '950 16'786 16'354 14'984kg '469 16'299 15'936 14'442kg '867 14'678 14'542 12'670kg '205 14'009 13'966 11'955kg

29 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Results: Net mass to MOC without aeroshell mass (~3.5 tons) DateDelta-IV HAriane VProton/cryoProton/Briz '297 13'179 12'771 11'442kg '286 13'158 12'766 11'396kg '664 11'520 11'354 9'605kg '724 10'579 10'532 8'613kg '733 10'597 10'535 8'653kg '551 11'426 11'245 9'550kg '600 12'484 12'158 10'703kg '197 13'082 12'683 11'344kg '514 13'391 12'964 11'659kg '292 12'154 11'902 10'290kg '969 10'823 10'746 8'867kg '492 10'352 10'326 8'388kg '144 11'015 10'891 9'107kg '024 11'906 11'655 10'079kg '054 12'940 12'556 11'197kg '410 13'289 12'873 11'553kg '004 12'873 12'521 11'077kg '399 11'254 11'123 9'320kg '653 10'510 10'468 8'545kg

30 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Manned mission to Mars orbit Example manned habitat: Destiny with 5 basic racks = 14.5 tons Minimum consumables for 3 persons for 180 days = 2.4 tons Rough estimation for a 3-person habitat to Mars = 17.7 tons Activities in Mars orbit: 1.Explore the Moons of Mars 2.Remote-control surface robots for in situ resource exploitation (prepare base and manned ascent vehicle) 3.Land on the surface

31 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Getting down to the surface Problem: Ballistic Coefficient is too high (560 kg/m2) Solution: Raise Drag Coefficient, enlarge drag area Standard aeroshell (works only for relatively light payloads) Large heatshield in front of payload Light aeroshell and hypersonic parachute

32 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Results: Useful payload on the martian surface - Depends on the atmospheric entry solution chosen - Chemical thrust delta-v may vary between 600 m/s and 1,400 m/s depending on the solution - Considering LOX/LH thrusters, final useful surface payload may vary between 30% and 50% of the atmospheric entry mass: Delta-IV HeavyAriane VProton / cryoProton / Briz Useful payload on surface: 5.3 to 8.8 tons4.9 to 8.2 tons4.8 to 8.0 tons 4.4 to 7.3 tons

33 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Conclusions 1.Light manned missions to Mars orbit can be made possible using existing launchers and technology Requirements: - Modifying upper stages for cryogenic cooling - Developing an ion-driven space tug - Developing a 5.4m Mars aeroshell - Man-rating a heavy launcher to launch the CEV to 400 x 300,000 km 1.Manned missions to the martian surface may be possible using existing launchers provided certain new technologies are developed Further requirements: - Hypersonic parachutes - Highly autonomous robots for surface activity - Practical and lightweight LOX/LH extraction from martian water

34 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Thank you for your attention

35 Presented by Marco Christov at the 11th Mars Society Annual Convention, 14 – 17 August 2008, Boulder Colorado. Appendix: Orbital Transfer Tug Variations Delta-v:3.46 km/s Payload:26.3 tons Can be launched with existing launcher PropulsionISP (s)Wet Mass (tons)Dry Mass (tons) NTO/MMH LOX/LH Nuclear Thermal Ion drive


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