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Data Communications and Networking

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Presentation on theme: "Data Communications and Networking"— Presentation transcript:

1 Data Communications and Networking

2 Outline Application Architectures World Wide Web Electronic Mail
Host-Based, Client-Based, and Client-Server Architectures, Choosing Architectures World Wide Web How the Web Works, Inside an HTTP Request & HTTP Response Electronic Mail How Works, Inside an SMTP Packet Listserv, Attachments in MIME Other Applications Ftp, Telnet, Instant Messaging, Videoconferencing

3 Application Layer - Introduction
Applications (e.g., , web, word processing) Application Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Functions of Applications Data storage Storing of data generated by programs (e.g., files, records) Data access logic Processing required to access stored data (e.g., SQL) Application logic Business logic Presentation logic Presentation of info to user and acceptance of user commands

4 Application Architectures
Determined by how functions of application programs are spread among clients and servers Host-based Architectures Server performs almost all functions Client-based architectures Client performs most functions Client-server architectures Functions shared between client and server

5 Host-Based Architectures
or a PC running a terminal emulation program captures key strokes then sends them to the mainframe displays information according to the server’s instructions

6 Problems with Host-based Arch.
Host becoming a bottleneck All processing done by the host, which can severely limit network performance Upgrades typically expensive and “lumpy” Available upgrades require big jumps in processing and memory  $$$ Network demand grows more incrementally, so this often means a poor fit (too much or too little) between host performance and network demand.

7 Client-Based Architectures
Example: Using a word processing on a PC and storing data (file) on a server Was popular in 1980s with the widespread use of PCs, LANs, and programs such as spreadsheets and word processors

8 Problems with Client-Based Arch.
Data MUST travel back and forth between server and client Example: when the client program is making a database query, the ENTIRE database must travel to the client before the query can be processed Result in poor network performance

9 Client-Server Architectures
(PC, mini, mainframe) Used by most networks today Client (PC) Example: Using a Web browser to get pages from Presentation logic Application logic Data Access logic Data Storage Application logic may reside on the client, server or be split up between the two

10 Client-Server Architectures
Advantages More efficient because of distributed processing Allow hardware and software from different vendors to be used together Disadvantages Difficulty in getting software from different vendors to work together smoothly May require Middleware, a third category of software

11 client application programs server application programs
Middleware client application programs a standard way of translating between software from different vendors Manages message transfers Insulates network changes from the clients ((e.g., adding a new server) Middleware server application programs Examples: Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)

12 Multi-tier Architectures
Involve more than two computers in distributing application program logic 2-tier architecture (architectures discussed so far) 3-tier architecture 3 sets of computers involved N-tier architecture more than three sets of computers used

13 3-tier Architecture

14 N-tier Architecture

15 Multi-tier Architectures
Advantages Better load balancing: More evenly distributed processing. (e.g., application logic distributed between several servers.) More scalable: Only servers experiencing high demand need be upgraded Disadvantages Heavily loaded network: More distributed processing  more exchanges Difficult to program and test due to increased complexity

16 Fat vs. Thin Clients Depends on how much of the application logic resides on the client Fat client: (a.k.a., thick client) All or most of the application logic Thin client: Little or no application logic Becoming popular because easier to manage, (only the server application logic generally needs to be updated) The best example: World Wide Web architecture (uses a two-tier, thin client architecture)

17 Thin-Client Example: Web Architecture
Web Server (PC, mini, mainframe) Client (PC) Presentation logic Application Logic Data Access logic Data Storage

18 Criteria for Choosing Architecture
Infrastructure Cost Cost of servers, clients, and circuits Mainframes: very expensive; terminals, PCs: very inexpensive Development Cost Mainly cost of software development Software: expensive to develop; off-the-shelf software: inexpensive Scalability Ability to increase (or decrease) in computing capacity as network demand changes Mainframes: not scalable; PCs: highly scalable

19 Choosing an Architecture
Host-Based Client-Based Client-Server Cost of Infrastructure High Medium Low Cost of Development Low Medium High Scalability Low Medium High

20 Applications World Wide Web E-mail File Transfer Videoconferencing
Instant Messaging

21 World Wide Web Two central ideas: Invention of WWW (1989)
Hypertext A document containing links to other documents Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) A formal way of identifying links to other documents Invention of WWW (1989) By Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in Switzerland First graphical browser, Mosaic, (1993) By Marc Andressen at NCSA in USA; later founded Netscape CERN - Centre Européan pour Rechèrche Nucleaire NCSA - National Center for Supercomputing Applications

22 How the Web Works Main Web communications protocol:
HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol A request-response cycle: include multiple steps since web pages often contain embedded files, such as graphics, each requiring a separate response. Clicking on a hyperlink or typing a URL into a browser starts a request-response cycle

23 HTTP Request Message Request line Request header Request body
(command, URL, HTTP version number) required (If the user types in the URL by themselves, then the referring page is blank.) Request header (information on the browser, date, and the referring page ) optional Request body (information sent to the server, e.g., from a form) optional

24 Example of an HTTP Request
Command URL HTTP version GET HTTP/1.1 Date: Mon 06 Aug :35:46 GMT User-Agent: Mozilla/6.0 Referer: Request Line Request Header URL that contained the link to the requested URL Web browser (code name for Netscape) Note that this HTTP Request message has no “Body” part. GMT – Greenwich Mean Time

25 HTTP Response Message Response status Response header Response body
(http version number, status code, reason) optional Response header (information on the server, date, URL of the page retrieved, format used ) optional Response body (requested web page) required

26 Example of an HTTP Response
Response Status HTTP/ OK Date: Mon 06 Aug :35:46 GMT Server: NCSA/1.3 Location: Content-type: text/html Response Header <html> <head> <title>Allen R. Dennis</title> </head> <body> <H2> Allen R. Dennis </H2> <P>Welcome to the home page of Allen R. Dennis</P> </body> </html> Response Body Another example of response status: HTTP/ page not found)

27 HTML - Hypertext Markup Language
A protocol used to format Web pages Also developed at CERN (initially for text files) TAGs embedded in HTML documents include information on how to format the file Extensions to HTML needed to format multimedia files XML - Extensible Markup Language A new markup language becoming popular

28 Electronic Mail Heavily used Internet application
Much, much faster than snail mail (regular mail) Extremely inexpensive (compared to $3-$10 per paper mail cost) Includes preparation, paper, postage, etc, Can substitute for other forms of communication, such as telephone calls Eliminates “telephone tag” users can answer at his/her convenience, instead of time of call

29 E-mail Standards SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
Main standard for Originating user agent and the mail transfer agent Between mail transfer agents Originally written to handle only text files Usually used in two-tier client-server architectures Post Office Protocol (POP) and Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) Main protocols used between the receiver user agent and mail transfer agent Main difference: with IMAP, messages can be left at the server after downloading them to the client Other competing standards Common Messaging Calls (CMC), X.400

30 Two-Tier E-mail Architecture
User agents (also called clients) Run on client computers Send to servers Download from mailboxes on those servers Examples: Eudora, Outlook, Netscape Messenger Mail transfer agents (also called mail server) Used by servers Send between servers Maintain individual mailboxes.

31 How SMTP Works LAN Internet LAN Server computer with
server software SMTP packet Client computer (“message transfer agent”) with client software LAN reads the packet’s destination address and sends it over the Internet to the receiver’s mail server. SMTP packet (“user agent”) an message is sent as an SMTP packet to the local mail server Internet SMTP packet Server computer with IMAP or POP packet server software Client computer contacts the mail server which then downloads the message LAN stores the message in the receiver’s mail box SMTP packet

32 Host Based e-mail Architectures
An old method used on UNIX based hosts Similar to client-server architecture, except Client PC replaced by a terminal (or emulator) Sends all keystrokes to the server Display characters received from the server All software reside on server Takes client keystrokes and understand user’s commands Creates SMTP packets and sends them to next mail server

33 Three-Tier Client-Server Arch.
Best known example: Web based (e.g., Hotmail) Server computer with server software Client computer with Web Browser Server computer with Web server software sends HTTP requests to the Web server sends HTTP responses to the Web client translates the client’s HTTP requests into SMTP packets then send them to the Mail server performs the same functions as the mail server in the two-tier example No need for an user agent

34 Web-based e-mail LAN Internet LAN Server computer with
Web server software HTTP request Client computer with LAN SMTP packet Web browser Server computer with server software HTTP response SMTP packet Internet SMTP packet Server computer with HTTP request server software Client computer with Web browser LAN IMAP or POP packet Server computer with HTTP response IMAP packet Web server software

35 SMTP Message Header Body Attachments
(source and destination addresses, date, subject, and other information about the message) Body (message itself) Attachments (additional files included along with the message)

36 Sample SMTP Message From: “Alan Dennis;”<>
Text in “ “ are ignored From: “Alan TO: “Pat Someone” Date: Mon 06 Aug :03:02 GMT Subject: Sample Note Message-Id: DATA: This is an example of an message Header Body Unique ID used to keep track of messages. Note that this SMTP message has no attachments.

37 MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension
A graphics capable mail transfer agent protocol (to send graphical information in addition to text) SMPT designed for text transfer only Included as part of an client Translates graphical information into text allowing the graphic to be sent as part of an SMTP message (as a special attachment) Receiver’s client then translates the MIME attachment from text back into graphical format Other Graphics capable mail agent protocols uuencode and binhex

38 Listserv Discussion Groups
Mailing lists of users who join to discuss some special topic (e.g., cooking, typing, networking) Some permit any member to post messages, some are more restricted Parts of listserv Listserv Processor Process commands ( subscriptions, etc,) Listserv Mailer Receive a message and resend it to everyone To subscribe Send an to Listserv processor (address of the processor is different than the address of mailer)

39 File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Enables sending and receiving files over the Internet Requires an application program on the client computer and a FTP server program on a server Commonly used today for uploading web pages Many packages available using FTP WS-FTP (a graphical FTP software) FTP sites Closed sites Requires account name and password Anonymous sites Account name: anonymous; pwd: your address

40 Telnet Allows one computer to log into other computers
Remote login enabling full control of the host Requires an application program on the client computer and a Telnet server program on a server Client program emulates a “dumb” terminal Many packages available conforming Telnet EWAN Requires account name and password Anonymous sites Account name: anonymous; pwd: your address

41 Instant Messaging (IM)
A client-server program that allows real-time typed messages to be exchanged Client needs an IM client software Server needs an IM server package Some types allow voice and video packets to be sent Like a telephone Examples include AOL and ICQ Two step process: Telling IM server that you are online Chatting

42 How Instant Messaging Works
Client computer with IM packet When you type some text, your IM client sends the text in a packet to the IM server which relays it to your friend. client software LAN IM packet Server computer with sends a request to the IM server telling it that you are online. If a friend connects, the IM server sends a packet to your IM client and vice versa with IM server software LAN Internet IM packet Client computer with If a chat session has more than two clients, multiple packets are sent by the IM server. IM servers can also relay information to other IM servers. IM packet IM client software LAN

43 Videoconferencing Provides real time transmission of video and audio signals among two or more locations Allows people to meet at the same time in different locations Saving money and time by not having to move people around (conference calling does the same thing) Typically involves 2 special purpose rooms with cameras and displays Desktop videoconferencing Low cost application linking small video cameras and microphones together over the Internet No need for special rooms Example: Net Meeting sw on clients communicating through a videoconference server


45 Videoconferencing Standards
Proprietary early systems Common standards in use today H.320 Designed for room-to-room videoconferencing over high-speed phone lines H.323 Family of standards designed for desktop videoconferencing and just simple audio conferencing over Internet MPEG-2 Designed for faster connections such as LAN or privately owned WANs

46 Webcasting Special type of one-directional videoconferencing Process
Content is sent from the server to users Process Content created by developer Downloaded as needed by the user Played by a plug-in to a Web browser No standards for webcasting yet Defacto standards: products by RealNetworks


48 Implications for Management
Network must be used to provide a worry-free environment for applications Network should not change the way an organization operates; application should! Network should enable wide variety of applications Dramatic increase in number and type of applications Rapid growth in amount and type of traffic Different implication on network design and management Increased operating cost

49 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein.

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