Presentation on theme: "Pasture Management Module 8. Western NA Land Management Federal land dominates rangeland in western NA. –Oregon is 50 % –Idaho is 75 % –Nevada is 90 %"— Presentation transcript:
Western NA Land Management Federal land dominates rangeland in western NA. –Oregon is 50 % –Idaho is 75 % –Nevada is 90 % Homestead Act created private land –land privatised if “proved-up” –640 acre livestock production land grants –180 acre crop production arable land grants Most federal managed land is rangeland Most private owned land is cropland or hill pasture
Land Management Agencies Key federal and state agencies involved in the management of rangeland –United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS) which was created in 1905 to manage forest and rangeland resources. –United States Department of the Interior-Bureau of Land Management (USDI- BLM) established in 1937 to manage predominantly non-forested public rangeland, –United States Department of the Interior-Bureau of Indian Affairs (USDI-BIA) which administers natural resources on Native American lands including rangeland and timber land. State of Oregon-Dept.of Agriculture (Lands) which administers land use on rangeland and forest controlled by the State of Oregon in Wallowa County. Wallowa County-Land Use Planning Committee which administers State land use criteria concerning changes in land use and attempts to resolve land use conflicts.
Forest Service Grazing Allotments Type of ranch operations using Forest Service grazing allotments include: –Year-long public land livestock production with seasonal pastures, Shortage of winter seasonal pastures Summer seasonal pastures more abundant –Spring, fall and summer seasonal pastures Public summer pastures less expensive than private leased land Public pastureland allotments highly sought for livestock production
Management of Forest Service Grazing Allotments Livestock numbers regulated Pasture condition closely monitored Livestock producer has 5-year “roll-over” lease. Livestock producer can have lease cancelled if not “in compliance” with Forest Service pasture use instructions
Example of Summer Rangeland Allotment 10,000 ha forest steppe allotment 225 cow-calf pairs (AU) 5 months use (1125 AUMs) No-fence pastoral rotational system
Application for a Forest Service Rangeland Allotment Permit Form 1. Application for Pasture Ticket Note: The information requested on this form is voluntary; however, all the data requested is necessary if you wish to be considered as a qualified applicant for a pasture ticket. Section A (To be completed by Applicant) I, _______________________________ of _____________________________ (Name of Applicant) (Address of Applicant) do hereby apply for a ticket to graze livestock on national pastureland as follows: LivestockPeriod of UsePasture Area NumberKindClassFromTo Other UseFromTo
Permit Requirements It is fully understood and agreed that a pasture permit, if issued and accepted pursuant to this application, may be cancelled or suspended, in whole or in part for: –(a) failure to comply with the terms and conditions in the permit, regulations of the Forest Service on which the permit is based, or annual operating or other instructions of authorized officers issued pursuant to the permit; –(b) knowingly and willfully making a false statement or representation in this application; –(c) conviction for failure to comply with laws or regulations relating to the designated use and to protection of air, water, soil, and vegetation, fish and wildlife, and other environmental values when exercising the use authorized by the ticket; –(d) to devote pastureland use to another public purpose, including disposal; or –(e) because the national pastureland described in the permit is no longer available for the permitted use. It is also fully understood and agreed that a pasture permit, if issued pursuant to this application, may be modified to conform to current situations brought about by changes in law, regulations, executive orders, pasture management plans, or land management planning. A permit issued pursuant to this application may also be modified because of resource conditions or permit holder request.
n 1. I own _____ head of cattle, ____ head of horses, ____ head of sheep, ____ head of other types (________) of livestock that are identified (brand, earmark, ear tag, etc.) as follows: 2. I own/lease/rent the following land which I hereby submit as base property for livestock using pastureland described in the pasture ticket: Description__________________________________________________________ (Legal description of the base property) Classified as: _____________ _________________ _____________ ___________ ( Pastureland) (Improved Pastureland) (Arable) (Total Hectares) In addition, I own/lease/rent the following lands: Classified as: _____________ _________________ _____________ ___________ ( Pastureland) (Improved Pastureland) (Arable) (Total Hectares) 3. Does anyone else possess an ownership interest in the livestock identified in number 1 above? Yes____ No_____ (If yes, identify the name and mailing address of all other co-owners of the livestock). 4. Do you currently hold, or have interest in, any other pasture ticket authorizing grazing on national pasturelands? Yes____ No____ (If yes, provide a copy of the Pasture Ticket). 5. Do you have an application for a pasture ticket pending before any other Jayit Committee? Yes____ No____ (If yes, provide a copy of the Pasture Ticket Application). 6. Are you submitting this application as an agent or representative of a grazing association, corporation, partnership, trust, or other legal entity? Yes____ No____ (If yes, include copies of a list of members, shareholders or partners, officers and directors, or other documents showing full ownership of the organization.) 7. Does a managerial agreement regarding the base property and/or permitted livestock exist with a third party? Yes____ No____ (If yes, provide a copy of the agreement). Signature of ApplicantTitleDate
Pasture Allotment Permit Form The term Pasture Permit holder __________________________________________ of _____________________________________________ hereinafter called the permit holder (Permit Holder Number _____________), is hereby authorized to use the designated pastureland (Pasture Permit Number________________) to graze livestock owned by the holder or for other designated uses (hunting, firewood collection, mushroom collection, recreation, etc.) upon national pastureland administered by the pasture committee of ________________. 1. Livestock grazing or other use shall take place only upon the area described as follows: (written description and/or map delineation of the pastureland for which the holder of the Pasture Permit has use) LivestockPeriod of UsePasture Area NumberKindClassFromTo Other UsePeriod of UsePasture Area
Pasture Allotment Permit Form (cont.) This Pasture Permit supercedes ticket number _________________________ issued on (previous ticket holder, if any) ____________ to ________________________________________. (Date) (Name of previous pasture permit holder) (I/We) have reviewed and accept the terms of this Pasture Permit. Signature of Permit Holder or authorized agent Date Signature of Forest Service OfficerDate
Pasture Use Plan Two major components: Livestock Grazing Instructions (Form 1, Pasture Area Map), Grazing Impact Monitoring Plan;
Livestock Grazing Instructions Annual livestock grazing instructions are determined by the Pasture Permit holder and the Pasture Committee who should meet to discuss livestock pasture use prior to livestock actually using the seasonal pasture area. Grazing instructions agreed upon should be presented in written form, copied to the permit holder, and included in the holder’s file. The purpose of the instruction is to ensure that the permittee clearly understands the management plan for the ticketed Pasture Area. If the permittee fails to comply with instructions without adequate reason, legal action can be taken by the Forest Service to ensure compliance.
1. Pasture Readiness and Livestock Turn-on It is not acceptable for livestock to enter onto a Pasture Area or into a specific Pasture Unit until soils are dry enough to prevent damage and key plant species are ready to withstand grazing. The Permittee is responsible for notifying the PC at least 5 days before turning livestock on to the Pasture Area and Pasture Unit. The Pasture Department and Pasture Committee should develop a list of key species for each pasture type. Example: The following plants indicate pasture readiness in Forest Steppe pastureland of western North America. –Agropyron spicatum (bluebunch wheatgrass) - 15 to 20 cm. –Festuca idahoensis (Idaho fescue) - 13 cm with seed head present –Poa sandbergii (Sandberg’s bluegrass) - seed heads present –Balsomorhiza saggitatus (Arrowleaf balsamroot) - early bloom
2. Allowable Utilization of Forage Utilization will be monitored and measured in terms of centimeters of residual stubble of a key species/or mix of key species in a designated key area. Livestock will remain in a PU for the scheduled grazing period or be removed just prior to grazing the key species to the designated “allowable stubble height.” A key area is a specific location in a PA/PU that is representative of dominant vegetation types in the pasture area and contains forage plants that are preferred and desirable to livestock grazing the PA/PU. It is also the area where response of the vegetation and site attributes to grazing will be measured (i.e., a response area).
a. Trigger key areas Key areas used to “trigger” pasture moves and seasonal grazing schedule adjustments will generally be located on two topographic features in each PU, an upland site and a riparian terrace. An upland pasture without a riparian zone will be monitored solely on the upland key area. PU with both uplands and riparian terraces will have key areas within each topographic feature. The residual stubble height is used to determine if livestock grazing activity is meeting required pasture management objectives.
b. Greenline (GL) or EOS key areas Greenline key areas are found within riparian zones which provide habitat for “Red Book” species. Residual plant stubble height is measured at the vegetative green line found at the water’s edge of a stream with a defined seasonal water channel. These measurements are made at the end of the growing season or livestock grazing use of a PU. Residual stubble height measurements at the greenline are used to determine if livestock use is meeting riparian management activities.
c. End of Season (EOS) Key Area Table (Form 4) End of Season (EOS) key areas are measured immediately after livestock are removed from the PA. Measurement of stubble height is compared with allowable stubble height to determine if livestock use of the area has beeen in compliance with grazing instructions.
Pasture Key Areas The table shows the key areas in each pasture used to measure allowable stubble height for both trigger monitoring (for pasture moves) and greenline monitoring (for compliance with Red Book species management objectives). Example Pasture Area/Pasture Unit Key AreaLocationHabitatKey SpeciesAllowable Stubble Height PA00001/PU01K-1GPS Upland Rip. Terrace GL/EOS Agsp Mixed species; Mixed species 10/8 cm 8 cm 10 cm
3. Livestock Move Dates The livestock move date for a PU is the date that a Permittee’s livestock are to be fully moved out of the PU. A Permittee’s livestock are to be fully moved from the PU by the off date. The Permittee will, after training, be responsible for visually monitoring livestock grazing use of key areas/key species. If allowable use is reached before the move date, the Permittee is responsible for moving livestock to the next PU early. If the Permittee thinks sufficient forage remains in the PU, and the key area standard has not been reached, extended use can be requested. Such requests should be submitted to the PC five days prior to the scheduled livestock move to another PU.
4. Livestock Distribution The Permittee will be required to use salting and herding to improve livestock distribution in the PU. The PU should use good judgement in placing salt in the PU. Good locations for salt include open ridge-tops on a rock surface and in locations where forage is not heavily used. Salt should not be placed near water sources or near roads or trails.
5. Non-Use Non-use does not apply to seasonal use; it only applies to number of livestock allowed to use a specific PU. The Permittee should be required to place at least 90 % of the livestock allowed by the permit on the PU unless non-use has been applied for and approved by the PC. Non-use for more than three years will not be allowed. (Refer to Permit)
6. Structural and Non-structural Improvements The Permittee is responsible for maintaining pasture improvements located on PUs in the PA designated by the permit. Improvements are to be maintained to proper standards prior to the Permittee livestock turn-on date. Improvements not maintained and in unacceptable condition could result in the PC not allowing livestock to be turned on to the PA or other adverse action could be taken. Replacement of improvements should occur as needed or as determined by the PC.
7. Invasive and noxious plants The Permittee should report to the PC the presence of invasive or noxious plants.
B. Specific Grazing Instructions. Specific grazing instructions apply to individual Permittees and instruct the holder about grazing of personal livestock within the PA or the PU. Example –1. It is the Permittee responsibility to make every reasonable effort to keep livestock away from important fish habitat during important times in the fish lifecycle while livestock are in the designated Pasture Unit. –2. Alternate season deferred grazing between 6/11 and 10/1 will depend upon plant phenology. The Permittee will keep livestock out of Target Springs Basin during the period livestock are in the Pasture Unit. –3 Portions of Pasture Unit near the stream west of the 39 road will not be grazed.
Annual Livestock Grazing Instructions Aimag:_____________________________ Soum:______________________________ Pasture Committee:____________________ Date: ___________________________ Name:___________________________ Permittee Number:______________ Pasture Area Number:_______________ Livestock Use of Ticketed Pasture Area Livestock KindNumbersPasture Use Time Allowed NumberHeadClassAUEAnimal Units winterspring- fall summer Cattle Sheep Horse Other
Livestock Grazing Schedule Seasonal PasturePasture Unit Grazing Schedule WinterUnitMonth/Days of Scheduled Grazing in Pasture Unit (1-12) 1 2 Spring-FallUnit 1 2 SummerUnit 1 2
Pasture Readiness Indicator Plant Species Scientific NameCommon NamePhenologyHeightOther
Pasture Moves Indicator Key Areas/Plant Species Pasture Unit/Key AreaKey Area Location (GPS) Habitat (upland, riparian terrace, greenline) Key SpeciesAllowable Stubble Height Grazing Instructions PA/PU Specific General:
Pasture Improvement Instructions Improvement Instructions Livestock: (Specific instructions to the Permittee relative to ancillary requirements such as livestock Identification, vaccination requirements, kind and class of animal, etc.) Pastureland: (Specific instructions to the Permittee relative to implementation or maintenance of pasture improvements, fencing, participation in adaptive research, etc.).
Form 4. Pasture Area/Pasture Unit Map (Example: Permittee PA/PU map from western US)