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OpenNF: Enabling Innovation in Network Function Control Aditya Akella With: Aaron Gember, Raajay Vishwanathan, Chaithan Prakash, Sourav Das, Robert Grandl,

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Presentation on theme: "OpenNF: Enabling Innovation in Network Function Control Aditya Akella With: Aaron Gember, Raajay Vishwanathan, Chaithan Prakash, Sourav Das, Robert Grandl,"— Presentation transcript:

1 OpenNF: Enabling Innovation in Network Function Control Aditya Akella With: Aaron Gember, Raajay Vishwanathan, Chaithan Prakash, Sourav Das, Robert Grandl, and Junaid Khalid University of Wisconsin—Madison

2 Network functions, or middleboxes Caching Proxy Intrusion Prevention Firewall WAN optimizer Traffic scrubber SSL Gateway Introduce custom packet processing functions into the network Load balancer … [Sherry et al., SIGCOMM 2012] Common in enterprise, cellular, ISP networks Stateful: detailed book-keeping for network flows

3 Network functions virtualization (NFV) – Lower cost – Easy prov., upgrades Software-defined networking (SDN) – Decouple from physical – Better performance, chaining 3 Xen/KVM State-of-the-art

4 Extract maximal performance at a given $$ SDN Controller MBox Load balancing Dynamic reallocation to coordinate processing across instances NFV + SDN: distributed processing

5 SDN Controller MBox Key abstractions 1. Elastic 2. Always updated 3. Dynamic enhancement MBox Hand-off processing for a traffic subset MBox Dynamic reallocation to coordinate processing across instances SDN Controller MBox Load balancing Extract maximal performance at a given $$ NFV + SDN: distributed processing

6 What’s missing? The ability to simultaneously… Meet SLAs – E.g., ensure deployment throughput > 1Gpbs Ensure accuracy/efficacy – E.g., IDS raises alerts for all HTTP flows containing known malware packages Keep costs low, efficiency high – E.g., shut down idle resources when not needed … needs more control than NFV + SDN

7 Example Not moving flows  bottleneck persists  SLAs! Naively move flows  no associated state  Accuracy! Scale down: wait for flow drain out  Efficiency! Transfer live state while updating n/w forwarding 7 FirewallCaching Proxy Intrusion Prevention Web Server Home Users Scaling in/out sustain thr’put at low $

8 OpenNF Quick and safe dynamic reallocation of processing across NF instances Quick: Any reallocation decision invoked any time finishes predictably soon Safe: Key semantics for live state transfers  No state updates missed, order preserved, etc. Rich distributed processing based applications to flexibly meet cost, performance, security objectives

9 Outline Overview and challenges Design – Requirements – Key ideas – Applications Evaluation

10 OpenNF OpenNF Controller SDN Controller Elastic scaling Hot standby Dynamic enhancement MBox NF APIs and control plane for joint control over internal NF state and network forwarding state Overview and challenges Reallocation operations State import/ export Coordination w/ network

11 1: Many NFs, minimal changes – Avoid forcing NFs to use special state structures/ allocation/access strategies  Simple NF-facing API; relegates actions to NFs 2: Reigning in race conditions – Packets may arrive while state is being moved; Updates lost or re-ordered; state inconsistency  Lock-step NF state/forwarding update 3: Bounding overhead – State transfers impose CPU, memory, n/w overhead  Applications control granularity, guarantees 11 Challenges Overview and challenges

12 State created or updated by an NF applies to either a single flow or a collection of flows Classify state based on scope Flow provides a natural way for reasoning about which state to move, copy, or share NF state taxonomy 12 Connection TcpAnalyzer HttpAnalyzer TcpAnalyzer HttpAnalyzer Per-flow state ConnCount Multi-flow state All-flows state Statistics C1: Minimal NF Changes

13 API to export/import state Three simple functions: get, put, delete(f) – Version for each scope (per-, multi-, all-flows) – Filter f defined over packet header fields NFs responsible for – Identifying and providing all state matching a filter – Combining provided state with existing state 13 No need to expose internal state organization No changes to conform to a specific allocation strategy C1: Minimal NF Changes

14 Operations move flow-specific NF state at various granularities copy and combine, or share, NF state pertaining to multiple flows Semantics for move (loss-free, order-preserving), copy/share (various notions of consistency) 14 “Reallocate port 80 to NF2”

15 Move 15 OpenNF Controller Control Application move (port=80,Inst 1,Inst 2, LF&OP) getPerflow(port=80) [ID1,Chunk1] putPerflow(ID1,Chunk1) delPerflow(port=80) [ID2,Chunk2] putPerflow(ID2,Chunk2) forward(port=80,Inst 2 ) SDN Controller Inst 2 Inst 1

16 Load-balanced network monitoring vulnerable.bro  reconstruct MD5’s for HTTP responses – Not robust to losses weird.bro  SYN and data packets seen in unexpected order – Not robust to reordering HTTP req vulnerable.bro weird.bro vulnerable.bro weird.bro move C2: Race conditions Moving live state: some updates (packets) may be lost, or arrive out of order

17 Packets may arrive during a move operation Fix: suspend traffic flow and buffer packets – May last 100s of ms – Packets in-transit when buffering starts are dropped Lost updates during move 17 R1 B1 B2 Inst 2 is missing updates Inst 2 Inst 1 move(blue,Inst 1,Inst 2 ) Loss-free: All state updates due to packet processing should be reflected in the transferred state, and all packets the switch receives should be processed Key idea: Event abstraction to prevent, observe and sequence state updates C2: Race conditions

18 1. enableEvents(blue,drop) on Inst 1 ; 2. get / delete on Inst 1 3. Buffer events at controller 4. put on Inst 2 5. Flush packets in events to Inst 2 6. Update forwarding Controller Loss-free move using events 18 R1 Inst 2 Inst 1 B3B1 drop B1 B1,B2 B2 B1,B2,B3 C2: Race conditions Stop processing; buffer at controller

19 19 Order-preserving: All packets should be processed in the order they were forwarded to the NF instances by the switch Controller Switch Inst 2 5. Flush buffer 6. Issue fwd update Inst 1 B2 B3B4 B3 B2 B4 B3 C2: Race conditions Re-ordering of updates Two-stage update to track last packet at NF1

20 Flush packets in events to Inst 2 w/ “do not buffer” enableEvents(blue,buffer) on Inst 2 Forwarding update: send to Inst 1 & controller Wait for packet from switch (remember last) Forwarding update: send to Inst 2 Wait for event from Inst 2 for last Inst 1 packet Release buffer of packets on Inst 2 Order-preserving move 20 R1 drop B1 B1,B2 B2 B1,B2,B3 buf B3 B4 B1,B2, B3, B4 C2: Race conditions Track last packet; sequence updates

21 Bounding overhead Apps decide, based on NF type, objective: granularity of reallocation operations move, copy or share filter, scope guarantees desired move: no-guarantee, loss-free, loss-free + order-preserving copy: no or eventual consistency share: strong or strict consistency C3: Applications

22 HTTP req Load-balanced network monitoring movePrefix(prefix,oldInst,newInst): copy(oldInst,newInst,{nw_src:prefix},multi) move(oldInst,newInst,{nw_src:prefix},per,LF+OP) while (true): sleep(60) copy(oldInst,newInst,{nw_src:prefix},multi) copy(newInst,oldInst,{nw_src:prefix},multi) scan.bro vulnerable.bro weird.bro scan.bro vulnerable.bro weird.bro C3: Applications scan.bro vuln.broweird.bro

23 Implementation OpenNF Controller (≈4.7K lines of Java) – Written atop Floodlight Shared NF library (≈2.6K lines of C) Modified NFs (4-10% increase in code) – Bro (intrusion detection) – PRADS (service/asset detection) – iptables (firewall and NAT) – Squid (caching proxy) Testbed: HP ProCurve connected to 4 servers 23 Impl & Eval

24 Microbenchmarks: NFs 24 Serialization/deserialization costs dominate Cost grows with state complexity Impl & Eval

25 State: 500 flows in PRADS; Traffic: 5000 pkts/sec Move per-flow state for all flows Microbenchmarks: operations 25 Packets dropped! 686 462 881 packets in events Guarantees come at a cost! Copy (MF state) – 111ms Share (strong) – 13ms per pkt D = f(load,state,speed) Impl & Eval 1120 packets buffered at Inst 2 838 packets in events +

26 Macrobenchmarks: end-to-end benefits Load balanced monitoring with Bro IDS – Load: replay cloud trace at 10K pkts/sec – At 180 sec: move HTTP flows (489) to new Bro – At 360 sec: move HTTP flows back to old Bro OpenNF scaleup: 260ms to move (optimized, loss-free) – Log entries equivalent to using a single instance VM replication: 3889 incorrect log entries – Cannot support scale-down Forwarding control only: scale down delayed by more than 1500 seconds Impl & Eval

27 Wrap up! OpenNF enables rich control of the packet processing happening across instances of an NF Quick, key safety guarantees, Low overhead, minimal NF modifications 27

28 Backup

29 Copy and share Used when multiple instances need to access a particular piece of state Copy – eventual consistency – Issue once, periodically, based on events, etc. Share – strong – All packets reaching NF instances trigger an event – Packets in events are released one at a time – State is copied between packets 29 C2: Race conditions

30 Example app: Selectively invoking advanced remote processing enhanceProcessing(flowid,locInst): move(locInst,cloudInst,flowid,per,LF) scan.bro vulnerable.bro weird.bro scan.bro vulnerable.bro weird.bro scan.bro vulnerable.bro weird.bro detect-MHR.bro scan.bro vulnerable.bro weird.bro detect-MHR.bro! C3: Applications HTTP req Enterprise n/w Internet checks md5sum of HTTP reply No need for: (1) order-preservation (2) copying multi-flow state

31 Existing approaches Control over routing (PLayer, SIMPLE, Stratos) Virtual machine replication – Unneeded state => incorrect actions – Cannot combine => limited rebalancing Split/Merge and Pico/Replication – Address specific problems => limited suitability – Require NFs to create/access state in specific ways => significant NF changes 31

32 Controller performance Improve scalability with P2P state transfers 32

33 Macrobenchmarks: Benefits of Granular Control Two clients make HTTP requests – 40 unique URLs Initially, both go to Squid1 20s later  reassign client 1 to Squid2 MetricIgnoreCopy-clientCopy-all Hits @ S1117 Hits @ S2crashed3950 State transferred 04MB54MB Granularities of copy Impl & Eval

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