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Writing Arguments and Conducting Research: A Focus on Using Evidence.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing Arguments and Conducting Research: A Focus on Using Evidence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing Arguments and Conducting Research: A Focus on Using Evidence

2 Persuasion vs. Argument Ethos (author credibility) Pathos (emotional appeal) Persuasion Logos (logical appeal) Reason Argument

3 3 convincing readers logic of claims merit of reasoned proofs logos logic of claims merit of reasoned proofs logos emotions of readers/audience credibility of the writer pathos, ethos emotions of readers/audience credibility of the writer pathos, ethos Argument Persuasion 26 Defining Argument Writing

4 4 convincing readers Argument Persuasion 26 Defining Argument Writing We should go to my favorite restaurant because - you love me I’m on the road all the time you want to make me happy We should go to my favorite restaurant because - According to Yelp reviews was voted the number one best restaurant in our city for 2013 It has 5 stars in Open Table reviews The head chef recently won on “Chopped” - Food Network They have the most extensive wine list in the county as stated by “The Wine Enthusiast”

5 5 Key Writing Anchor Standards A1. “Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.” A7. “Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.” 27

6 6 Deconstruct the Standard Do/What Process A1. “Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.” 6 DoWhat write support analyze use arguments claims in an analysis substantive topics text valid reasoning relevant and sufficient evidence

7 7 7 Kinder Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is…). Grade 1 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure. Grade 2 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section. Grade 3 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons. Provide reasons that support the opinion. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons. Provide a concluding statement or section.

8 8 8 Grade 4 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer's purpose. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition). Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. Grade 5 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer's purpose. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically). Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. Grade 6 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons. Establish and maintain a formal style. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.

9 9 Why Evidence-Based Writing Matters Use of Logic Write coherent, well-reasoned arguments to respond to and challenge claims on substantive topics and issues. Focus on Evidence Analyze and synthesize print and digital sources to support and evaluate claims with evidence. Audience and Context Consider task, purpose, and audience when selecting words and evidence. 28

10 10 Reasons Claim Evidence Elements of Argument (Counterclaim) 46 Conclusion

11 11 Elements of Argument 47 CLAIM Reason Evidence COUNTERCLAIM CONCLUSION Reason PG page 8

12 12 Types of Claims 48 PG page 8 Fact (Substantiation) Value (Evaluation) Policy (Recommendation) Claim that something exists or that it is a fact Claim about the value of something Claim that something should be done Example: Standardized test scores have improved over the last 10 years. Example: Standardized tests are an effective way to measure student achievement. Example: Standardized tests should be replaced with portfolio assessment.

13 13 Grades K–6 Label each statement with a C for claims or an X for non-claims. ___ Tropical fish make the best pets. ___ Virginia Hamilton wrote many famous novels for young adults. ___ The paper crane was a magic crane. Grades 7–12 Label the claim types by writing F for fact, V for value, and P for policy. ___ The U.S. should build a colony in space. ___ William Shakespeare could not have written all the work he has been credited with writing. ___ Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was the most influential American of the 20 th century. Types of Claims 49 Fact (Substantiation) Value (Evaluation) Policy (Recommendation) Claim that something exists or that it is a fact Claim about the value of something Claim that something should be done Evidence must: provide definitions present accurate and recent data include statistics rely on generally accepted knowledge Evidence must: establish standards for evaluation offer comparisons provide specific examples Evidence must: establish a need make a proposal/plan outline the benefits acknowledge a counterclaim PG page 8

14 14 Making a Valid Claim 56 PG page 11 Step 1 Reread an exemplar text from your grade level. Refer to PG pages 11– 17. Develop a valid claim about the text or an aspect of the text. Consider evidence you might use to support this claim. Step 2Step 3

15 15 Understanding Counterclaims 70 CLAIM Turn Back to your own claim and explain why it is better Turn Against your own claim - point out holes

16 16 Using Academic Language 76 Everyday WordsPrecise Words and Phrases agreeconcur, contend that, subscribe to disagreedispute, oppose, would counter with goodcompelling, convincing, relevant, striking, strong badalarming, distressing, disturbing, troubling, unnerving enoughadequate, substantial, sufficient manysubstantial numbers of, a high percentage of fewa decrease in, a low percentage of

17 17 Recognizing Fact and Opinion TOPIC: ____________________________________ 80 PG page 19 The world’s most violent storms TypeText-Based FactMy Opinion Source 1: Hurricanes: Earth’s Mightiest Storms by Patricia Lauber Hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones are three types of storms. Cyclones are the deadliest storms of them all! Hurricanes develop from warm, damp air in tropical areas.


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