2 Common Core: Writing Anchor Standards Text Types and Purposes*1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.Production and Distribution of Writing4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.Research to Build and Present Knowledge7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.Range of Writing10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.*These broad types of writing include many subgenres. See Appendix A for definitions of key writing types.Have teachers read these first
3 Four CategoriesThese are not meant to be taught in order. They constantly overlap
4 Three Text Types 1. Narrative 2.Informational/Explanatory 3. Argument Correlation to what you already do?
5 Narrative Conveys a real or imaginary experience Uses time as its main structureMay be used to: inform, persuade, entertain, or instructCome in the form of: memoirs, creative or fictional stories, anecdotes, autobiographies…Include visual details
6 Informational/Explanatory Purpose:Increase reader’s knowledge of a subjectHelp the reader understand a procedureProvide readers information on a particular topic/conceptAddresses types and componentsWriter’s convey information by:NamingDefiningDescribingComparing/contrastingCiting evidence
7 Genres of Informational/Explanatory Writing Literary analysisScientific and historical reportsSummariesWorkplace and functional writing:ResumesApplicationsReportsManualsmemos
8 Difference between Informational and Argumentative Information is provided in both, however:Argumentative makes people believe that something is true and seeks to change beliefsInformational assumes that the information is taken as truthful (already a fact)Arguments are used to persuade while informational pieces are used to clarify and provide information.
9 Persuasion vs. Argument Ethos (author credibility)Pathos (emotional appeals)PersuasionLogos (logical appeals)ReasonArgumentRefer to box in handout of Appendix A where it states that persuasion relies on appeals to emotions and how credible the writer is v. argument where the audience is convinced because of the validity and reasonableness of the claims and proofs offered.
10 Is it argument or persuasion? Have a discussion-this is persuasion because there are no facts presented here. It’s an appeal to emotions
11 What is claim. (zombies make cool parents) Evidence. The reasons What is claim? (zombies make cool parents) Evidence? The reasons. Warrant? (what we know of zombies) Although comical, the essence of argumentative writing is here. There is a claim with reasons and explanations/examples of the reasons. The reasons here are presented as “facts” about zombies.
12 What is the purpose of argumentative writing? Multiple purposes:Change a reader’s point of viewBring about some actionAsk the reader to accept the writer’s evaluation of an issue based on evidenceRead appendix A—last part. What are the distinguishing characteristics they note? How is this final portion of this section an argument? Does it include the elements mentioned? (For instance, that a formal tone is always to be privileged.) What others? In addition, what do the standards SUGGEST? For example, the ordering of statements might suggest that acknowledging opposing claims comes early in the argument. Is that necessary or just a by-product of way this is written?
13 In English Language Arts… Students:Make claims about the meaning of literary worksDefend their interpretations with evidence from the text
14 Creating an argument Claim Evidence Explanation A Miner would be a good mascot selection for our school.EvidenceMascots should be strong or tough and represent the area. They should be something people would be proud to be.ExplanationOur area has mining as one of its primary industries, so the choice would represent our area. In addition, miners need to be tough because they do strenuous work—and dangerous work. They work hard to fill a need for people everywhere. That’s something to be proud of..
15 The structures and language of argument Incorporating others’ words or ideasSubordinating opposing viewsOrganizing for greatest effectMaintaining an academic toneAnalyzing and explaining data/sources adequatelyRecognizing the difference between reasons and evidenceEvaluating quality of evidence/research
16 Using others’ ideas appropriately Quoting: using the exact words of another. Words must be placed in quotation marks and the author cited.Summarizing: putting the ideas of another in your own words and condensing them. Author must be identified.Paraphrasing: putting someone else’s ideas in your words but keeping approximately the same length as the original. Paraphrase must be original in both structure and wording, and accurate in representing author’s intent. It can not just be switching out synonyms in the original sentence. Author must be identified.
17 “Skilled writers many times use a blend of these three text types to accomplish their purposes.” –Common Core State Standards, Appendix A
18 Important to note… Writing and reading should be taught together STUDENTS SHOULD WRITE ABOUT WHAT THEY READWriting should be done in ALL content areas every weekThe length and type of writing should vary depending on writingNot all writing has to be formal or go through the entire writing processJOURNALS, QUICK WRITES, SHORT RESPONSE, LAB WRITE UPS, REFLECTIONS, SUMMARIES…