Presentation on theme: "Shell Model and Collective Models in Nuclei Experimental and theoretical perspectives R. F. Casten WNSL, Yale Univ. RIKEN, January, 2010."— Presentation transcript:
1Shell Model and Collective Models in Nuclei Experimental and theoretical perspectives R. F. CastenWNSL, Yale Univ.RIKEN, January, 2010
2Lecture 1 Introduction to Nuclear Structure and the Independent Particle Model (IPM)
3The scope of Nuclear Structure Physics The Four FrontiersProton Rich NucleiNeutron Rich NucleiHeaviest NucleiEvolution of structure within these boundariesTerra incognita — huge gene pool of new nucleiWe can customize our system – fabricate “designer” nuclei to isolate and amplify specific physics or interactions
4Themes and challenges of Modern Science Complexity out of simplicity -- MicroscopicHow the world, with all its apparent complexity and diversity can be constructed out of a few elementary building blocks and their interactionsSimplicity out of complexity – MacroscopicHow the world of complex systems can display such remarkable regularity and simplicity
10The empirical magic numbers near stability 2, 8, 20, 28, (40), 50, (64), 82, 126These are the famous magic numbers that have been benchmarks of structure for 60 years. Recently, with studies of exotic nuclei we are now beginning to realize that they are not as robust as we have thought. Studies in this area are one of the major thrusts of nuclear structure research today.
11Shell StructureMottelson (Nobel Prize for the Unified Model, 1975) – ANL, SeptShell gaps, magic numbers, and shell structure are not merely details but are fundamental to our understanding of one of the most basic features of nuclei – independent particle motion. If we don’t understand the basic quantum levels of nucleons in the nucleus, we don’t understand nuclei. Moreover, perhaps counter-intuitively, the emergence of nuclear collectivity itself depends on independent particle motion (and the Pauli Principle).
12“Magic plus 2”: Characteristic spectra ~ 1.3 -ish12
13Lowering of energies, development of multiplets. R4/2 ~2-2.4 What happens with both valence neutrons and protons? Case of few valence nucleons:Lowering of energies, development of multiplets. R4/2 ~2-2.413
19Sudden changes in R4/2 signify changes in structure, usually from spherical to deformed structure Onset of deformation
20Think about the striking regularities in these data Think about the striking regularities in these data. Take a nucleus with A ~ The summed volume of all the nucleons is ~ 60 % the volume of the nucleus, and they orbit the nucleus ~ 1021 times per second! Instead of utter chaos, the result is very regular behavior, reflecting ordered, coherent, motions of these nucleons. This should astonish you. How can this happen??!!!! Much of understanding nuclei is understanding the relation between nucleonic motions and collective behavior
23Ab initio calculations: One on-going success story
24But we won’t go that way – too complicated for any but the lightest nuclei. We will make some simple models – microscopic and macroscopic Let’s start with the former, the Independent particle model and its daughter, the shell model
25Independent particle model: magic numbers, shell structure, valence nucleons. Three key ingredients First:VijrUir = |ri - rj|Nucleon-nucleon force – very complexOne-body potential – very simple: Particle in a box~This extreme approximation cannot be the full story. Will need “residual” interactions. But it works surprisingly well in special cases.
26Second key ingredient: Quantum mechanics Particles in a “box” or “potential” wellConfinement is origin of quantized energies levels312Energy ~ 1 / wave lengthn = 1,2,3 is principal quantum numberE up with n because wave length is shorter
32Radial Schroedinger wave function Higher Ang Mom: potential well is raised and squeezed. Wave functions have smaller wave lengths. Energies riseEnergies also rise withprincipal quantum number, n.Raising one, lowering the other can give similar energies – “level clustering”:H.O: E = ħ (2n+l)E (n,l) = E (n-1, l+2)e.g., E (2s) = E (1d)
34Third key ingredientPauli PrincipleTwo fermions, like protons or neutrons, can NOT be in the same place at the same time: can NOT occupy the same orbit.Orbit with total Ang Mom, j, has 2j + 1 substates, hence can only contain 2j + 1 neutrons or protons.This, plus the clustering of levels in simple potentials, gives nuclear SHELL STRUCTURE
36The plot gives B.E.s PER nucleon. We can see how to improve the potential by looking at nuclear Binding Energies.The plot gives B.E.s PER nucleon.Note that they saturate. What does this tell us?36
37Consider the simplest possible model of nuclear binding. Assume that each nucleon interacts with n others. Assume all such interactions are equal.Look at the resulting binding as a function of n and A. Compare this with the B.E./A plot.Each nucleon interacts with 10 or so others. Nuclear force is short range – shorter range than the size of heavy nuclei !!!37
38~ Compared to SHO, will mostly affect orbits at large radii – higher angular momentum states38
40orbits and raises those with The nuclear potential: a rounded square well (Wood-Saxon shape) works quite well in reproducing the magic numbers provided we add in a spin-orbit force* that lowers the energies of thej = l + ½orbits and raises those withj = l – ½* Maria Goeppert Mayer, Haxel, Jensen, and Suess, 1948, Nobel Prize 1963
41Clusters of levels + Pauli Principle magic numbers, inert cores Concept of valence nucleons – key to structure. Many-body few-body: each body counts.Addition of 2 neutrons in a nucleus with 150 can drastically alter structure
42Independent Particle Model Put nucleons (protons and neutrons separately) into orbits.Key question – how do we figure out the total angular momentum of a nucleus with more than one particle? Need to do vector combinations of angular momenta subject to the Pauli Principal. More on that later. However, there is one trivial yet critical case.Put 2j + 1 identical nucleons (fermions) in an orbit with angular momentum j. Each one MUST go into a different magnetic substate. Remember, angular momenta add vectorially but projections (m values) add algebraically.So, total M is sum of m’sM = j + (j – 1) + (j – 2) + …+ 1/2 + (-1/2) + … + [ - (j – 2)] + [ - (j – 1)] + (-j) = 0M = So, if the only possible M is 0, then J= 0Thus, a full shell of nucleons always has total angular momentum 0. This simplifies things enormously !!!
56Independent Particle Model Some great successes (for nuclei that are “doubly magic plus 1”).Clearly inapplicable for nuclei with more than one particle outside a doubly magic “core”. In fact, in such nuclei, it is not even defined. Thus, as is, it is applicable to only a couple % of nuclei.Residual interactions and angular momentum coupling to the rescue.
57HomeworkNote that only those circled can be done before considering residual interactions5757
58Independent Particle Model – Uh –oh !!! Trouble shows up